Luke 6

Luke 6


IOne SabbathII while Jesus was goingIII through some grain fields,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
II “Sabbath” = Sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
III “going” = diaporeuomai. 5x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, or die; transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination)}. This is to travel through, pass.
IV “grain fields” = sporimos. 3x in NT. From sporos (a sowing, the seed for planting); from speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); perhaps from spao (to pull, to draw a sword). This is a field that is sown, such as a grain field.

his disciplesV pluckedVI some heads of grain,VII rubbedVIII them in their hands,IX and ateX them. 

Notes on verse 1b

V “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
VI “plucked” = tillo. 3x in NT. This is to pluck or pick. It is in the word “trichotillomania.”
VII “heads of grain” = stachus. 5x in NT. Perhaps from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is a head of grain.
VIII “rubbed” = psocho. 1x in NT. From psao (to rub) OR from psallo (to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp); {from psao (see above)}. This is to rub as rubbing kernels from their husks or rub to pieces.
IX “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
X “ate” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.

But some of the PhariseesXI said, “Why are you doingXII what is not lawfulXIII on the Sabbath?” 

Notes on verse 2

XI “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
XII “doing” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XIII “is…lawful” = exesti. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.

JesusXIV answered, “Have you not readXV what DavidXVI did when he and his companionsXVII were hungry?XVIII 

Notes on verse 3

XIV “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XV “read” = anaginosko. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is literally to know again – to recognize, read, or discern.
XVI “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
XVII “companions” = ho + meta + autos + eimi. Literally, “those who were with him.” Eimi is related to “is…lawful” in v2. See note XIII above.
XVIII “were hungry” = peinao. From peina (hunger); related to penomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is to hunger, be needy, or desire earnestly. It can be being famished in a definitive sense or in comparison to someone or something else. Figuratively, this means to crave.

How he enteredXIX the houseXX of GodXXI and tookXXII and ateXXIII

Notes on verse 4a

XIX “entered” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
XX “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
XXI “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XXII “took” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XXIII “ate” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.

the breadXXIV of the Presence,XXV which it is not lawful for anyXXVI but the priestsXXVII to eat,XXVIII and gaveXXIX some to his companions?” 

Notes on verse 4b

XXIV “bread” = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
XXV “Presence” = prothesis. 12x in NT. From protithemi (to set before, purpose, plan, determine, put in a public display); {from pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is a setting forth – a proposal, predetermination, purpose. It can also mean something that is sacred or consecrated so it can be used for the showbread or sacred bread.
XXVI “any” = monos. Perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate.
XXVII “priests” = hiereus. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god). This is a priest, used for Jewish and Gentile priests.
XXVIII “eat” = phago. Same as “ate” in v4. See note XXIII above.
XXIX “gave” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.

Then he said to them, “The SonXXX of ManXXXI is lordXXXII of the Sabbath.”

Notes on verse 5

XXX “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XXXI “Man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XXXII “lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

XXXIIIOn anotherXXXIV Sabbath he entered the synagogueXXXV

Notes on verse 6a

XXXIII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XXXIV “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
XXXV “synagogue” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.

and taught,XXXVI and there was a manXXXVII there whose rightXXXVIII hand was withered.XXXIX 

Notes on verse 6b

XXXVI “taught” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
XXXVII “man” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v5. See note XXXI above.
XXXVIII “right” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
XXXIX “withered” = xeros. 8x in NT. This is dry, arid, withered. It can also refer to dry land or imply something that is shrunken.

The scribesXL and the Pharisees were watchingXLI him to see whether he would cureXLII on the Sabbath, so that they might findXLIII grounds to bring an accusationXLIV against him. 

Notes on verse 7

XL “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
XLI “watching” = paratereo. 6x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + tereo (to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve; figuratively, spiritual watchfulness; guarding something from being lost or harmed; fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining; figuratively can mean to remain unmarried.); { teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy)}. This is to watch or observe carefully due to personal interest.
XLII “cure” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.
XLIII “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
XLIV “accusation” = kategoreo. From kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR {from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}}. This is to accuse, charge, or prosecute. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.

But he knewXLV what they were thinking,XLVI and he said to the manXLVII who hadXLVIII the withered hand,

Notes on verse 8a

XLV “knew” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
XLVI “thinking” = dialogismos. 14x in NT. From dialogizomai (to consider, have a back and forth debate with an uncertain conclusion; multiple confused minds reinforcing a faulty conclusion); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + logizmai (to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense); {from logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is reasoning, plotting, argument, discussion that reinforces faulty reasoning, debate.
XLVII “man” = aner. Related to “Man” in v5. See note XXXI above.
XLVIII “had” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.

“ComeXLIX and standL in the middle.”LI He got upLII and stood there. 

Notes on verse 8b

XLIX “come” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
L “stand” = histemi.  Related to “heads of grain” in v1. See note VII above.
LI “middle” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
LII “got up” = anistemi. Related to “heads of grain” in v1 & “stand” in v8. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note VII above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.

Then Jesus said to them, “I askLIII you, is it lawful to do goodLIV or to do harmLV on the Sabbath,

Notes on verse 9a

LIII “ask” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
LIV “do good” = agathopoieo. Related to “doing” in v2. 10x in NT. From agathopoios (a do-gooder or virtuous person; someone who does intrinsically good things); {from agathos (good, a benefit, or a good thing; good by its very nature, inherently good) + poieo (see note XII above)}. This is to do good or to do right.
LV “do harm” = kakopoieo. Related to “doing” in v2 & “do good” in v9. 4x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil,; evil that is part of someone’s core character –rotted, worthless, harmful) + poieo (see note XII above). This is to do harm or evil. It is behavior that comes from an intrinsically evil or worthless character.

to saveLVI lifeLVII or to destroyLVIII it?” 

Notes on verse 9b

LVI “save” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
LVII “life” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
LVIII “destroy” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

10 After looking aroundLIX at allLX of them, he said to him, “Stretch outLXI your hand.”

Notes on verse 10a

LIX “looking around” = periblepo. 7x in NT- 6x in Mark & 1x in Luke. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to survey, look around closely, gaze about.
LX “all” = pas. This is all or every.
LXI “stretch out” = ekteino. 16x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to stretch out, reach, lay hands on. Can also be used for casting an anchor.

He did so, and his hand was restored.LXII 11 But they were filledLXIII with furyLXIV and began discussing with one another what they might do to Jesus.

Notes on verses 10b-11

LXII “restored” = apokathistemi. Related to “heads of grain” in v1 & “stand” and “got up” in v8. 8x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + kathistemi (to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (see note VII above)}. This is to restore something to its original place or status. It can be give back, set up again or, figuratively, to restore full freedom or liberty. This word can also be used of healing – restoring full health.
LXIII “filled” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
LXIV “fury” = anoia. Related to “read” in v3. 2x in NT. From a (not, without) + nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); {from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (see note XV above)}. This is literally no mind – it is madness as a description of irrational or mindless actions. It is foolishness, madness or intense anger (as deriving from irrationality of inability to think things through).

12 NowLXV during those daysLXVI he went outLXVII to the mountainLXVIII to pray,LXIX andLXX he spent the night in prayerLXXI to God. 

Notes on verse 12

LXV {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
LXVI “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
LXVII “went out” = exerchomai. Related to “entered” in v4. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XIX above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
LXVIII “mountain” = oros. Related to “bread” in v4. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (see note XXIV above). This is mountain or hill.
LXIX “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
LXX {untranslated} = eimi. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVII above.
LXXI “prayer” = proseuche. Related to “pray” in v12. From proseuchomai (see note LXIX above). This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.

13 And when day came,LXXII he calledLXXIII his disciples and choseLXXIV

Notes on verse 13a

LXXII “came” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
LXXIII “called” = prosphoneo. 7x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + phoneo (to call out, summon, shout, address; making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument); from phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to call to, address, give a speech, summon, exclaim.
LXXIV “chose” = eklego. Related to “thinking” in v8. From ek (from, from out of) + lego (see note XLVI above). This is to choose, select, elect.

twelveLXXV of them, whom he also namedLXXVI apostles:LXXVII 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXV “twelve” = dodeka. From duo (two, both) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.
LXXVI “named” = onomazo. Related to “read” in v3 & “fury” in v11. 10x in NT. From onoma (name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation; thought to include something of the essence of the person and not separate from the person); may be from ginosko (see note XV above). This is to name – either to name someone or call out their name. More broadly, it can mean to mention or utter.
LXXVII “apostles” = apostolos. Related to “heads of grain” in v1 & “stand” and “got up” in v8 & “restored” in v10. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (see note VII above)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.

14 Simon,LXXVIII whom he named Peter,LXXIX and his brotherLXXX Andrew,LXXXI

Notes on verse 14a

LXXVIII “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
LXXIX “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
LXXX “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
LXXXI “Andrew” = Andreas. Related to “Man” in v5 & “man” in v8. 13x in NT. From aner (see note XXXI above). This is Andrew, meaning manly.

and James,LXXXII and John,LXXXIII and Philip,LXXXIV and Bartholomew,LXXXV 

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXII “James” = Iakobos. From Hebrew Yaaqob (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
LXXXIII “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v3. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XIV above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
LXXXIV “Philip” = Philippos. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse). This is Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses.
LXXXV “Bartholomew” = Bartholomaios. 4x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son, age); {Aramaic corresponding to ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children)} + Talmay (Talmay, meaning “plowman” or “ridged”); {from the same as telem (furrow or ridge; root may mean to accumulate)}. This is Bartholomew, meaning “son of Tolmai.”

15 and Matthew,LXXXVI and Thomas,LXXXVII and James son of Alphaeus,LXXXVIII and Simon, who was calledLXXXIX the Zealot,XC 

Notes on verse 15

LXXXVI “Matthew” = Matthaios. Related to “Jesus” in v3 & “John” in v14. 5x in NT. From maththaios (Matthew); from Hebrew mattityahu (Matthew, “gift of the Lord”); {from mattanah (gift, offering of sacrifice, present, bribe); {from mattan (gift, reward, to give); from natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively)} + YHVH (see note XIV above)}. This is Matthew or Matthaeus, meaning “give of the Lord” or “given of the Lord.” See
LXXXVII “Thomas” = Thomas. 11x in NT. From Hebrew toam (twin). This is Thomas, meaning twin.
LXXXVIII “Alphaeus” = Alphaios. 5x in NT. From Hebrew halap (to exchange, renew, traverse). This is Alphaeus, which shares a root with Clopas. It means “traverse” or “exchange.” See
LXXXIX “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
XC “Zealot” = Zelotes. 8x in NT. From zeloo (jealous, eager for, burning with zeal, deeply committed, envy); from zelos (eagerness or zeal on the one hand or rivalry and jealousy on the other; burning anger or burning love) perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is zealous or a zealot – someone eagerly devoted to someone or something. This is where the word “zealot” comes from.

16 and JudasXCI son of James, and Judas Iscariot,XCII who becameXCIII a traitor.XCIV

Notes on verse 16

XCI “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
XCII “Iscariot” = Iskariotes. 11x in NT. From Hebrew probably ish (man, husband); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be frail, feeble)} + qirya (city); {Aramaic corresponding to qiryah (city, building); from qarah (to happen, meet, bring about)}. Iscariot means person from Kerioth.
XCIII “became” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XCIV “traitor” = prodotes. Related to “gave” in v4. 3x in NT. From prodidomi (to give first, betray); {from pro (before, earlier, above) + didomi (see note XXIX above)}. This is treacherous, a betrayer, one who surrenders.

17 He came downXCV with them and stood on a levelXCVI placeXCVII with a greatXCVIII crowdXCIX of his disciples

Notes on verse 17a

XCV “came down” = katabaino. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (to walk, go). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
XCVI “level” = pedinos. From pedion (a plain) OR from pous (a foot in a literal or figurative sense). This is plain, flat – terrain that is easy to walk across.
XCVII “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
XCVIII “great” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XCIX “crowd” = ochlos. Related to “had” in v8. Perhaps from echo (see note XLVIII above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.

and a great multitudeC of peopleCI from all Judea,CII Jerusalem,CIII

Notes on verse 17b

C “multitude” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.
CI “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
CII “Judea” = Ioudaia. Related to “Judas” in v16. From Hebrew Yehudah (see note XCI above). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
CIII “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

and the coastCIV of TyreCV and Sidon.CVI 

Notes on verse 17c

CIV “coast” = paralios. 1x in NT. From para (from beside, by) + the same as halieus (a sailor, which implies fishermen; used for those who fish on saltwater and freshwater); from hals (salt or a body of salt water). This is the region by the sea, maritime.
CV “Tyre” = Turos. 11x in NT. From Phoenician t-s-r (rock; “after the rocky formation on which the town was originally built”). This is Tyre, the capital of Phoenicia. See
CVI “Sidon” = Sidon. 10x in NT. From Phoenician tsydon (Sidon; probably meaning fishery or fishing town). This is Sidon – a city in Phoenicia. See &

18 They had comeCVII to hearCVIII him and to be healedCIX of their diseases,CX

Notes on verse 18a

CVII “come” = erchomai. Related to “entered” in v4 & “went out” in v12. See note XIX above.
CVIII “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CIX “healed” = iaomai. This is to heal, particularly from a physical illness, but it could also be a spiritual difficulty. This is to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense.
CX “diseases” = nosos. 11x in NT. This refers to a disease that is chronic and enduring. It can also be used for a moral failing.

and those who were troubledCXI with uncleanCXII spiritsCXIII were cured. 

Notes on verse 18b

CXI “troubled” = enochleo. Related to “had” in v8 & “crowd” in v17. 2x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ochleo (to trouble, worry, force like a pressing crowd, to mob); {from ochlos (see note XCIX above)}. This is to disturb, crowd in, trouble. It is to cause vexation with the strength of an unruly mob.
CXII “unclean” = akathartos. From a (not, without) + kathairo (to cleanse or purify by purging out unwanted elements); {from katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying)}. This is unclean or impure, whether a thing or a person. It is something that is not mixed with something that would taint. This is unclean in a ritual or moral sense. It can also mean demonic or foul.
CXIII “spirits” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

19 And everyone in the crowd was tryingCXIV to touchCXV him, for powerCXVI came outCXVII from him and healed all of them.

Notes on verse 19

CXIV “trying” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
CXV “touch” = haptomai. From hapto (to touch, handle, kindle, lay hold of). This is a touch that has an impact on what is being touched – it has an influence on the recipient so that the recipient is changed.
CXVI “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
CXVII “came out” = exerchomai. Same as “went out” in v12. See note LXVII above.

20 Then he looked upCXVIII at his disciples and said:

“BlessedCXIX are you who are poor,CXX
    for yours is the kingdomCXXI of God.

Notes on verse 20

CXVIII “looked up” = epairo + ho + ophthalmos + autos. Literally, “lifted up his eyes.” Epairo is related to “bread” in v4 & “mountain” in v12. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (see note XXIV above). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself. Ophthalmos is related to “Man” in v5. From optanomai (see note XXXI above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
CXIX “blessed” = makarios. From makar (happy); from mak– (to become long or large). This is blessed, happy, fortunate. It is when God’s grace/abundance is extended.
CXX “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.
CXXI “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “came down” in v17. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (see note XCV above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.

21 “Blessed are you who are hungry now,
    for you will be filled.CXXII
“Blessed are you who weepCXXIII now,
    for you will laugh.CXXIV

Notes on verse 21

CXXII “filled” = chortazo. 16x in NT. From chortos (food, grass, grain, hay; a place for feeding, a court, garden; by implication, a pasture or vegetation). This is to feed, fodder, fill, or satisfy. It carries the sense of abundantly supplied food – even gorging on food.
CXXIII “weep” = klaio. This is to weep, lament, or sob. It is weeping aloud.
CXXIV “laugh” = gelao. 2x in NT – both in this passage. This is to laugh or smile.

22 “Blessed are you when peopleCXXV hateCXXVI you and when they excludeCXXVII you,

Notes on verse 22a

CXXV “people” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v5. See note XXXI above.
CXXVI “hate” = miseo. From misos (hatred). This word is used in two ways in the New Testament. One has to do with how we prioritize. In order to prioritize something the highest, it means we have to rank other things lower. We cannot have 10 number one priorities. So, the nine that are not number 1, we love less or we value them lower. We make a moral choice the springs from our values about where we put our time, efforts, energy, etc. The other way is detesting or hatred as we normally think of it. This sense has a particular affinity with persecuting the one we hate.
CXXVII “exclude” = aphorizo. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + horizo (to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined; literally, this is setting horizons); {from the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary)}. This is to set off by a boundary – to divide, separate, exclude. It can also mean ostracize or keep aloof.

revileCXXVIII you, and defameCXXIX you on account of the Son of Man.CXXX 

Notes on verse 22b

CXXVIII “revile” = oneidizo. Related to “read” in v3 & “fury” in v11 & “named” in v13. 9x in NT. From oneidos (a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation, a taunt or reproach); perhaps from the base of onoma (see note LXXVI above). This is to disgrace, insult, mock, blame, or curse someone so as to create shame. This is when a person or thing is considered guilty and deserving punishment. So, it can be denounce, revile, defame, or chide.
CXXIX “defame” = ekballo + ho + onoma + su + hos + poneros. Literally, “cast out your name as evil.” Ekballo is from ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense. Onoma is related to “read” in v3 & “fury” in v11 & “named” in v13 & “revile” in v22. See note LXXVI above. Poneros is related to “were hungry” in v3. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (see note XVIII above). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
CXXX “Man” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v5. See note XXXI above.

23 RejoiceCXXXI on that day and leap for joy,CXXXII for surelyCXXXIII

Notes on verse 23a

CXXXI “rejoice” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
CXXXII “leap for joy” = skirtao. 3x in NT – here and of the fetus of John the Baptist leaping in Elizabeth’s womb. From skairo (to skip). This is to leap or jump, to bound. It can refer to a quickening.
CXXXIII “surely” = idou. Related to “knew” in v8. From eido (see note XLV above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.

your rewardCXXXIV is great in heaven,CXXXV for that is how their ancestorsCXXXVI treated the prophets.CXXXVII

Notes on verse 23b

CXXXIV “reward” = misthos. This is wages, pay, or salary. It can also be reward, recompense, or punishment. It is pay for services rendered in a literal or figurative way, either good or bad.
CXXXV “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “bread” in v4 & “mountain” in v12 & “looked up” in v20. May be related to oros (see note LXVIII above). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CXXXVI “ancestors” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
CXXXVII “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “called” in v13. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note LXXIII above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.

24 “ButCXXXVIII woeCXXXIX to you who are rich,CXL

Notes on verse 24a

CXXXVIII “but” = plen. Related to “great” in v17. From pleion (more excellent, many); from polus (see note XCVIII above). This is yet, however, nevertheless.
CXXXIX “woe” = ouai. This is alas or woe to show grief or to denounce something.
CXL “rich” = plousios. Related to “great” in v17 & “multitude” in v17 & “but” in v24. From ploutos (abundance, wealth, or riches; money, possessions, spiritual abundance, or a valuable bestowment); from polus (see note XCVIII above) OR pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR pletho (see note C above). This is wealthy, having full resources. It can be a rich person or refer to God’s abundance.

    for you have receivedCXLI your consolation.CXLII
25 “Woe to you who are fullCXLIII now,
    for you will be hungry.
“Woe to you who are laughing now,
    for you will mournCXLIV and weep.

Notes on verses 24b-25

CXLI “received” = apecho. Related to “had” in v8 & “crowd” in v17 & “troubled” in v18. 19x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + echo (see note XLVIII above). This is to be distant, have fully, abstain, be paid, be distant, be enough. It is having something by detaching it from something else or releasing something else.
CXLII “consolation” = paraklesis. Related to “called” in v15. From parakaleo (to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg; to exhort or admonish; to encourage, comfort, or console; has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note LXXXIX above)}. This is calling someone for help, a personal exhortation, comfort, encouragement, joy, entreaty, urging. This word comes from a legal setting – as bringing evidence to advocate for another in court. This word is related to the word “Advocate” or paraclete used for the Holy Spirit.
CXLIII “are full” = empiplemi. Related to “great” in v17 & “but” and “rich” in v24. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + same as pleistos (most, very great, much, very numerous); {from polus (see note XCVIII above)}. This is to fill up or satisfy literally or figuratively.
CXLIV “mourn” = pentheo. 10x in NT. From penthos (mourning, sorrow, sadness, grief); perhaps from pascho (to be acted on for good or ill; often used for negative treatment; properly, feeling strong emotions – especially suffering; can also be the ability to feel suffering). This is used for grieving a death, but also figuratively for loss of hope or end of a relationship. This is embodied grief that is readily apparent. This is grief as a feeling or the act of grieving.

26 “Woe to you when allCXLV speak wellCXLVI of you, for that is how their ancestors treated the false prophets.CXLVII

Notes on verse 26

CXLV {untranslated} = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v5. See note XXXI above.
CXLVI “well” = kalos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably.
CXLVII “false prophets” = pseudoprophetes. Related to “called” in v13 & “prophets” in v23. 11x in NT. From pseudes (false, lying, wicked); {from pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify)} + prophetes (see note LXXXVII above). This is false prophet – one who pretends they are prophesying from God or who teaches something that is false, but still attributes it to God.

27 “But I sayCXLVIII to you who are listening:CXLIX LoveCL your enemies;CLI do goodCLII to those who hate you; 

Notes on verse 27

CXLVIII “say” = lego. Related to “thinking” in v8 & “chose” in v13. See note XLVI above.
CXLIX “listening” = akouo. Same as “hear” in v18. See note CVIII above.
CL “love” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
CLI “enemies” = echthros. From echthos (hatred). This is an openly hostile person so an enemy, a foe, or a hated person. This speaks of irreconcilable hostility. It can also mean adversary and/or refer to Satan.
CLII “good” = kalos. Same as “well” in v26. See note CXLVI above.

28 blessCLIII those who curseCLIV you; pray for those who mistreatCLV you. 

Notes on verse 28

CLIII “bless” = eulogeo. Related to “thinking” inv 8 & “chose” in v13 & “say” in v27. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (see note XLVI above). Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
CLIV “curse” = kataraomai. Related to “bread” in v4 & “mountain” in v12 & “looked up” in v20 & “heaven” in v23. 6x in NT. From katara (curse, accursed; a curse as penalty); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + ara (prayer, curse, imprecation; a pray for evil); {probably from airo (see note XIV above)}}. This is to curse, execrate, doom.
CLV “mistreat” = epereazo. 2x in NT. From epereia (spiteful abuse) OR from epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + areia (threats). This is to insult, mistreat, or slander. It includes making threats or smearing another’s reputation. It is reviling that is tailored to someone in particular.

29 If anyone strikesCLVI you on the cheek,CLVII offerCLVIII the otherCLIX also,

Notes on verse 29a

CLVI “strikes” = tupto. 14x in NT. This is to strike, beat, or wound – generally with a stick or cudgel. It is hitting with repeated blows. So, it contrasts with paiso and patasso, which describe single blows by hand or weapon. Also contrast plesso (beating with a fist or hammer), rhapizo (to slap), and tugchaono (hitting accidentally). This word is hitting to punish. Figuratively, it can refer to being offended.
CLVII “cheek” = siagon. 2x in NT. This is jaw or cheek.
CLVIII “offer” = parecho. Related to “had” in v8 & “crowd” in v17 & “troubled” in v18 & “received” in v24. 16x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + echo (see note XLVIII above). This is present, to show, bring, give, offer to hold near.
CLIX “other” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).

and from anyone who takes awayCLX your coatCLXI do not withholdCLXII even your shirt.CLXIII 

Notes on verse 29b

CLX “takes away” = airo. Related to “bread” in v4 & “mountain” in v12 & “looked up” in v20 & “heaven” in v23 & “curse” in v28. See note XIV above.
CLXI “coat” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
CLXII “withhold” = koluo. Perhaps from the same as kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked, dwarf). This is to hinder or prevent, restrain, refuse. It can be prevent, whether through words or actions.
CLXIII “shirt” = chiton. 11x in NT. From a Semitic language – see Hebrew kethoneth (tunic). Root means to cover. This is the garment worn beneath the cloak or robe – the one that is closest to the skin.

30 Give to everyoneCLXIV who asksCLXV of you, and if anyone takes away what is yours, do not ask for it back again.CLXVI 31 Do to othersCLXVII as you would haveCLXVIII them do to you.

Notes on verses 30-31

CLXIV “everyone” = pas. Same as “all” in v10. See note LX above.
CLXV “asks” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
CLXVI “ask…again” = apaiteo. Related to “begs” in v30. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + aiteo (see note CLXV above). This is to ask back, ask again, demand.
CLXVII “others” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v5. See note XXXI above.
CLXVIII “would have” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

32 “If you love those who love you, what creditCLXIX is that to you? For even sinnersCLXX love those who love them. 33 If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. 34 If you lendCLXXI to those from whom you expectCLXXII to receiveCLXXIII payment, what credit is that to you?

Notes on verses 32-34a

CLXIX “credit” = charis. Related to “rejoice” in v23. From chairo (see note CXXXI above). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
CLXX “sinners” = hamartolos. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.
CLXXI “lend” = danizo. Related to “gave” in v4 & “traitor” in v16. 4x in NT. From danos (loan, gift) OR daneion (loan, debt); {probably related to didomi (see note XXIX above)}. This is to lend or borrow – it implies interest.
CLXXII “expect” = elpizo. From elpis (expectation, hope, trust, confidence, faith; expectation whether abstract or concrete); from elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively); from elpomai (to anticipate, expect). This is to expect, trust, hope for, or to wait in an active way.
CLXXIII “receive” = lambano. Same as “took” in v4. See note XXII above.

Even sinners lend to sinners, to receiveCLXXIV as muchCLXXV again. 35 Instead, love your enemies, do good, and lend, expecting nothing in return.CLXXVI Your reward will be great, and you will be childrenCLXXVII of the Most High,CLXXVIII

Notes on verses 34b-35a

CLXXIV “receive” = apolambano. Related to “took” in v4. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + lambano (see note XXII above). This is to receive back, separate, to get one’s due.
CLXXV “as much” = isos. Related to “knew” in v8 & “surely” in v23. 8x in NT. Perhaps from eido (see note XLV above). This is equal, same, like, similar number or substance.
CLXXVI “expecting…in return” = apelpizo. Related to “expect” in v34. 1x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + elpizo (see note CLXXII above). This is to expect to receive back.
CLXXVII “children” = huios. Same as “Son” in v5. See note XXX above.
CLXXVIII “Most High” = Hupistos. 13x in NT. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond) This is highest, heights, heaven. It can also refer to God as Most High or the Supreme One.

for he himself is kindCLXXIX to the ungratefulCLXXX and the wicked.CLXXXI  36 BeCLXXXII merciful,CLXXXIII just as your FatherCLXXXIV is merciful.

Notes on verses 35b-36

CLXXIX “kind” = chrestos. 7x in NT. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is useful, good, well-fitted, benevolent, kind, gracious. It was also a name given to slaves in the ancient world.
CLXXX “ungrateful” = acharistos. Related to “rejoice” in v23 & “credit” in v32. 2x in NT. From a (not, without) + charizomai (to show favor, kindness, or grace, to pardon, forgive); from charis (see note CLXIX above). This is without grace, ungrateful, unpleasing.
CLXXXI “wicked” = poneros. Same as “defame” in v22. See note CXXIX above.
CLXXXII “be” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CLXXXIII “merciful” = oiktirmon. 3x in NT. From oiktiro (to have compassion, sympathy, or pity); from oiktos (pity). This is merciful, compassionate, perhaps showing lament.
CLXXXIV “Father” = Pater. Same as “ancestors” in v23. See note CXXXVI above.

37 “Do not judge,CLXXXV and you will not be judged; do not condemn,CLXXXVI and you will not be condemned. Forgive,CLXXXVII and you will be forgiven; 

Notes on verse 37

CLXXXV “judge” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
CLXXXVI “condemn” = katadikazo. 6x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known)}. This is to condemn, to judge as in giving a sentence. It is judgment in a particular, personal instance – to find guilty.
CLXXXVII “forgive” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.

38 give, and it will be given to you. A goodCLXXXVIII measure,CLXXXIX pressed down,CXC shaken together,CXCI

Notes on verse 38a

CLXXXVIII “good” = kalos. Related to “well” in v26. See note CXLVI above.
CLXXXIX “measure” = metron. 14x in NT. This is a measure, whether of distance or volume. It can be a tool for measuring or the measure itself. Figuratively, it is that which determines what is sufficient. This is where the words “meter” and “metric” come from.
CXC “pressed down” = piezo. 1x in NT. Perhaps from piazo (to take, catch,  squeeze, capture from hunting, or arrest); {from piezo (to press down or together, to pack) OR related to biazo (to force, use power to seize); {from bia (strength, force, violence) or bios (life, livelihood, goods, wealth)}}. This is to pack or press down.
CXCI “shaken together” = saleuo. 15x in NT. From salos (tossing, agitation, rolling – like the sea swells). This is to agitate or shake up. It can mean to disturb, topple, incite, or destroy.

running over,CXCII will be putCXCIII into your lap,CXCIV for the measure you giveCXCV will be the measure you get back.”CXCVI

Notes on verse 38b

CXCII “running over” = huperekchunno. 1x in NT. From huper (over, above, beyond) + ekchunno (to pour out, gush, spill, bestow); {from the same as ekcheo (something poured out in a liberal fashion; gushing, spilling, or shedding); {from ek (from, from out of) + cheo (to pour)}}. This is to pour out or overflow.
CXCIII “put” = didomi. Same as “gave” in v4. See note XXIX above.
CXCIV “lap” = kolpos. 6x in NT. It is bosom (as in the bosom of Abraham from Like 16:22-23). It is also chest, where their garments would fold over. Reclining in this position connoted intimacy and union.
CXCV “give” = metreo. Related to “measure” in v38. 11x in NT. From metron (see note CLXXXIX above). This is to measure or estimate.
CXCVI “measure…get back” = antimetreo. Related to “measure” and “give” in v38. 1x in NT. This is to measure again, measure out by a standard.

39 He also told them a parable:CXCVII “CanCXCVIII a blindCXCIX person

Notes on verse 39a

CXCVII “parable” = parabole. Related to “defame” in v22.  From paraballo (literally to throw beside, compare, arrive, liken); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + ballo (see note CXXIX above)}. This is a parable, comparison, adage. Quite often a tale told or a metaphor to establish a point, but it could be a true story.
CXCVIII “can” = dunamai. Related to “power” in v19. See note CXVI above.
CXCIX “blind” = tuphlos. Derivation unclear. Perhaps from tuphoo (to be conceited, foolish, puffed up, haughty; properly, to blow smoke; figuratively being muddled or cloudy in mind; poor judgment that harms spiritual clarity; also, being covered with smoke – so filled with pride); from tuphos (smoke, vanity, arrogance); from tupho (to raise smoke, smolder, slowly consume without flame). This is blind or a blind person – perhaps in the sense of smoke making things opaque and impossible to see. This is blind literally or figuratively.

guideCC a blind person? Will not both fallCCI into a pit?CCII 

Notes on verse 39b

CC “guide” = hodegeo. Related to “synagogue” in v6. 5x in NT. From hodegos (leader or guide; figuratively, a teacher); {from hodos (way, road, path, or journey; can imply progress along a route) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (see note XXXV above)}. This is to guide or instruct. It is showing someone else the way, whether literally or figuratively.
CCI “fall” = empipto. 7x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to fall in, be trapped, involved with, or overwhelmed by.
CCII “pit” = bothunos. Related to “came down” in v17 & “kingdom” in v20. 3x in NT. Probably from bathus (deep in a literal or figurative sense); from the same root as basis (step, foot); from baino (see note XCV above) OR similar to bathuno (to excavate, deepen); from bathus (see above). This is a hole in the ground. So, it could be a pit, ditch, or a cistern.

40 A disciple is not above the teacher,CCIII but everyCCIV disciple who is fully qualifiedCCV will be like the teacher. 

Notes on verse 40

CCIII “teacher” = didaskalos. Related to “taught” in v6. From didasko (see note XXXVI above). This is teacher or master.
CCIV “every” = pas. Same as “all” in v10. See note LX above.
CCV “fully qualified” = katartizo. Related to “bread” in v4 & “mountain” in v12 & “looked up” in v20 & “heaven” in v23 & “curse” in v28 & “takes away” in v29. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + artizo (get ready, prepare); {from artios (perfect, complete, ready, adequate, fitted); from arti (now, in the moment); from airo (see note XXIV above)}. This is to prepare, complete, perfect for final use. This is restoring something to a good condition, whether for the first time or one more. It is to repair in a literal or figurative sense.

41 Why do you seeCCVI the speckCCVII in your neighbor’sCCVIII eyeCCIX

Notes on verse 41a

CCVI “see” = blepo. Related to “looking around” in v10. See note LIX above.
CCVII “speck” = karphos. 6x in NT. From karpho (to wither, dry up). This is a twig, speck, chaff, small particle. It could be a straw or wood – something that is dry and does not weigh a lot.
CCVIII “neighbor’s” = adelphos. Same as “brother” in v14. See note LXXX above.
CCIX “eye” = ophthalmos. Same as “looked up” in v20. See note CXVIII above.

but do not noticeCCX the logCCXI in your ownCCXII eye? 

Notes on verse 41b

CCX “notice” = katanoeo. Related to “read” in v3 & “fury” in v11 & “named” in v13 & “revile” and “defame” in v22. 14x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + noeo (to think, understand, conceive, realize, see; one who thinks things through sufficiently to reach a conclusion or value judgment; moral reasoning.); {from nous (see note LXIV above)}. This is to consider, discern, perceive, notice, observe. It is to think through something thoroughly in order to come to a conclusion – fully concentrated thinking.
CCXI “log” = dokos. Related to “right” in v6. 6x in NT. From dechomai (see note XXXVIII above). This is a large beam of wood, plank, pole, log – a plank used to build a house.
CCXII “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).

42 Or how can you say to your neighbor, ‘Friend,CCXIII letCCXIV me takeCCXV out the speck in your eye,’ when you yourself do not seeCCXVI the log in your own eye?

Notes on verse 42a

CCXIII “friend” = adelphos. Same as “brother” in v14. See note LXXX above.
CCXIV “let” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
CCXV “take” = ekballo. Same as “defame” in v22. See note CXXIX above.
CCXVI “see” = blepo. Same as “see” in v41. See note CCVI above.

You hypocrite,CCXVII firstCCXVIII takeCCXIX the log out of your own eye, and then you will see clearlyCCXX to takeCCXXI the speck out of your neighbor’s eye.

Notes on verse 42b

CCXVII “hypocrite” = hupokrites. Related to “judge” in v37. 18x in NT. From hupokrinomai (to answer, pretend, respond as an actor on stage; figuratively, to lie) {from hupo (by, under, about) + krino (see note CLXXXV above)}. This is literally an actor. Figuratively, it is someone playing out a role, which is to say, lying, pretending, or being a hypocrite. This is where the word “hypocrite” comes from.
CCXVIII “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
CCXIX “take” = ekballo. Same as “defame” in v22. See note CXXIX above.
CCXX “see clearly” = diablepo. Related to “looking around” in v10 & “see” n v41. 3x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + blepo (see note CCVI above). This is to see through, which implies seeing clearly or regaining vision.
CCXXI “take” = ekballo. Same as “defame” in v22. See note CXXIX above.


Notes on verse 43a

CCXXII {untranslated} = eimi. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVII above.
CCXXIII “good” = kalos. Same as “good” in v38.
CCXXIV “tree” = dendron. Perhaps from drus (oak). This is tree. It is the same root that “dendrite” comes from.

bearsCCXXV badCCXXVI fruit,CCXXVII nor again does a bad tree bear goodCCXXVIII fruit; 

Notes on verse 43b

CCXXV “bears” = poieo. Same as “doing” in v2. See note XII above.
CCXXVI “bad” = sapros. 8x in NT. From sepo (to putrefy, cause to rot; figuratively, to perish or to make something corrupt). This is rotten, worthless, corrupt, bad, or unwholesome. It is rotten and hence of poor quality and hence not good for use and so worthless in a literal and figurative (moral) sense. This is someone who previously embodied a virtue, but has fallen into sin.
CCXXVII “fruit” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.
CCXXVIII “good” = kalos. Same as “good” in v38.

44 for each tree is knownCCXXIX by its own fruit. For people do not gatherCCXXX figs from thorns,CCXXXI

Notes on verse 44a

CCXXIX “known” = ginosko. Related to “read” in v3 & “fury” in v11 & “named” in v13 & “revile” and “defame” in v22 & “notice” in v41. See note XV above.
CCXXX “gather” = sullego. Related to “thinking” inv 8 & “chose” in v13 & “say” in v27 & “bless” in v28. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lego (see note XLVI above). This is to gather up or gather together.
CCXXXI “thorns” = akantha. 14x in NT. From akmen (even now, still yet); from the same as akmazo (ripe, to be vigorous); from akme (point, edge); related to ake (a point). This is thorn or thorn bush.

nor do they pickCCXXXII grapesCCXXXIII from a bramble bush.CCXXXIV 

Notes on verse 44b

CCXXXII “pick” = trugao. From truge (ripe) OR from trugo (to dry). This is to harvest or, specifically, to gather grapes.
CCXXXIII “grapes” = staphule.3x in NT. Perhaps from the base of stephanos (something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland; properly, the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win; symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek); stepho (to twine, encircle). This is grape or a cluster of grapes as twined together.
CCXXXIV “bramble bush” = batos. 5x in NT– 4x of the burning bush & 1x of a bramble bush. This is a bush, perhaps a thorn bush.

45 The goodCCXXXV person out of the goodCCXXXVI treasureCCXXXVII of the heartCCXXXVIII

Notes on verse 45a

CCXXXV “good” = agathos. Related to “do good” in v9. See note LIV above
CCXXXVI “good” = agathos. Same as “good” in v45. See note CCXXXV above.
CCXXXVII “treasure” = thesaurus. Related to “Presence” in v4. 17x in NT. From tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish). This is treasure, storehouse, deposit. It can be used figuratively for treasured thoughts.
CCXXXVIII “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

producesCCXXXIX good,CCXL and the evilCCXLI person out of evil treasure produces evil, for it is out of the abundanceCCXLII of the heart that the mouthCCXLIII speaks.

Notes on verse 45b

CCXXXIX“produces” = prophero.2x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to bring forth, bear forward.
CCXL“good” = agathos. Same as “good” in v45. See note CCXXXV above.
CCXLI“evil” = poneros. Same as “defame” in v22. See note CXXIX above.
CCXLII“abundance” = perisseuma. 5x in NT. From perisseuo (more than what is ordinary or necessary; abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond; super-abounding in number or quality); from perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundance, overflow, more than was expected up to the limit – a super-plus.
CCXLIII “mouth” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.

46 “Why do you call me ‘Lord, Lord,’ and do not do what I tell you? 47 I will showCCXLIV you what someoneCCXLV is like who comesCCXLVI to me, hears my words,CCXLVII and actsCCXLVIII on them. 

Notes on verses 46-47

CCXLIV “show” = hupodeiknumi. Related to “condemn” in v37. 6x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, under someone’s authority) + deiknumi (see note CLXXXVI above). This is to teach, indicate, suggest, prove, exhibit, to show secretly, admonish.
CCXLV “someone” = pas. Same as “all” in v10. See note LX above.
CCXLVI “comes” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v18. See note CVII above.
CCXLVII “words” = logos. Related to “thinking” inv 8 & “chose” in v13 & “say” in v27 & “bless” in v28 & “gather” in v44. See note XLVI above.
CCXLVIII “acts” = poieo. Same as “doing” in v2. See note XII above.

48 That one is like a manCCXLIX buildingCCL a houseCCLI who dugCCLII deeplyCCLIII

Notes on verse 48a

CCXLIX “man” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v5. See note XXXI above.
CCL “building” = oikodomeo. Related to “house” in v4.  From oikos (see note XX above) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
CCLI “house” = oikia. Related to “house” in v4 & “building” in v48. From oikos (see note XX above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
CCLII “dug” = skapto. 3x in NT. This is dig or excavate.
CCLIII “deeply” = bathuno. Related to “pit” in v39. 1x in NT. See note CCII above.

and laidCCLIV the foundationCCLV on rock;CCLVI when a floodCCLVII arose,CLVIII

Notes on verse 48b

CCLIV “laid” = tithemi. Related to “Presence” in v4 & “treasure” in v45. See note XXV above.
CCLV “foundation” = themelios. Related to “Presence” in v4 & “treasure” in v45 & “laid” in v48. 16x in NT. From tithemi (see note XXV above). This is related to a foundation, building substructure. It is a foundation in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLVI “rock” = petra. Related to “Peter” in v14. 15x in NT. See note LXXIX above.
CCLVII “flood” = plemmura. Related to “multitude” in v17. 1x in NT.  Perhaps from pletho (see note C above). This is a flood, a freshet.
CCLVIII “arose” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.

the riverCCLIX burst againstCCLX that houseCCLXI but couldCCLXII not shake it because it had been well built. 

Notes on verse 48c

CCLIX “river” = potamos. 17x in NT. From pino (to drink). This is a river, brook, or water. It can also be a riverbed flowing with heavy rain or melted snow (like an arroyo).
CCLX “burst against” = prosregnumi. 2x in NT – both in this passage. From pros (at, towards, for) + rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is to dash against or burst upon forcefully as coming waters.
CCLXI “house” = oikia. Same as “house” in v48. See note CCLI above.
CCLXII “could” = ischuo. Related to “had” in v8 & “crowd” in v17 & “troubled” in v18 & “received” in v24 & “offer” in v29. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); {perhaps from is (force) + echo (see note XLVIII above)}. This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.

49 But the one who hears and does not act is like a manCCLXIII who built a houseCCLXIV on the groundCCLXV withoutCCLXVI a foundation.

Notes on verse 49a

CCLXIII “man” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v5. See note XXXI above.
CCLXIV “house” = oikia. Same as “house” in v48. See note CCLI above.
CCLXV “ground” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
CCLXVI “without” = choris. From chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is apart from, separate from.

When the river burst against it, it quicklyCCLXVII collapsed,CCLXVIII and greatCCLXIX wasCCLXX the ruinCCLXXI of that house.”CCLXXII

Notes on verse 49b

CCLXVII “quickly” = eutheos. Related to “bless” in v28 & “Presence” in v4 & “treasure” in v45 & “laid” and “foundation” in v48. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (see note CLIII above) + tithemi (see note XXV above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
CCLXVIII “collapsed” = pipto. Related to “fall” in v39. See note CCI above.
CCLXIX “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CCLXX “was” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CCLXXI “ruin” = rhegma. Related to “burst against” in v48. 1x in NT. From rhegnumi (see note CCLX above). This is something broken or torn. It can also be a fall.
CCLXXII “house” = oikia. Same as “house” in v48. See note CCLI above.

Image credit: “The Parable of the Mote and the Beam” by Domenico Fetti, circa 1619.

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