Luke 7

Luke 7

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After Jesus had finishedI allII his sayingsIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “finished” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
II “all” = pas. This is all or every.
III “sayings” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.

in the hearingIV of the people,V he enteredVI Capernaum.VII 

Notes on verse 1b

IV “hearing” = akoe. From akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing). This is hearing, ear, audience, fame, report, rumor.
V “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
VI “entered” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
VII “Capernaum” = Kapernaoum. 16x in NT. From Hebrew kaphar (village with walls); {from the same as kephir (a young lion, village); from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel)} + Nachum (Nahum, “comfortable”); {from nacham (a strong breath or sigh; to be sorry, to pity, console, comfort, or repent; also to comfort oneself with thoughts of vengeance)}. This is Capernaum, meaning “Nahum’s village.”

A centurionVIII there had a slaveIX whom he valued highlyX

Notes on verse 2a

VIII “centurion” = hekatontarches. From hekaton (hundred) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is a centurion from the Roman army, leader a captain of one hundred soldiers.
IX “slave” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
X “valued highly” = eimi + autos + entimos. Eimi is to be, exist. Entimos is 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is held in honor so valued, precious, distinguished, or dear.

and who wasXI illXII and close toXIII death.XIV 

Notes on verse 2b

XI “was” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
XII “ill” = kakos. 16x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is wrongly, badly, cruelly, with bad motives, misery connected to affliction. It can be physically badly or morally badly, i.e. evilly.
XIII “close to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
XIV “death” = teleutao. 13x in NT. From teleute (end, finishing, consummation; can also be used for death); from teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete or come to the end/end goal. It can also mean to finish life or to meet one’s ultimate fate in heaven or hell.

When he heardXV about Jesus,XVI he sentXVII

Notes on verse 3a

XV “heard” = akouo. Related to “hearing” in v1. See note IV above.
XVI “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XVII “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

some JewishXVIII eldersXIX to him, askingXX him to comeXXI and healXXII his slave. 

Notes on verse 3b

XVIII “Jewish” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XIX “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
XX “asking” = erotao. Related to “sayings” in v1. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (see note III above). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
XXI “come” = erchomai. Related to “entered” in v1. See note VI above.
XXII “heal” = diasozo. 8x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + sozo (to save, heal, rescue); {from sos (safe, well, rescued)}. This is thoroughly saved or delivered from danger. It can also be to make someone entirely whole, to cure, or preserve.

When they cameXXIII to Jesus, they appealedXXIV to him earnestly,XXV

Notes on verse 4a

XXIII “came” = paraginomai. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
XXIV “appealed” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
XXV “earnestly” = spoudaios. 3x in NT. From spoudaios (eager, prompt, zealous, diligent, hasty); from spoude (diligence, speed, full effort by hurrying); from speudo (to urge on, hurry, speed); probably from pous (foot literal or figurative). This is diligently, promptly, speedily, eagerly.

saying,XXVI “He isXXVII worthyXXVIII to have you doXXIX this for him, 

Notes on verse 4b

XXVI “saying” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXVII “is” = eimi. Same as “highly valued” in v2. See note X above.
XXVIII “worthy” = axios. From ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go). This is related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward.
XXIX “do” = parecho. Related to “was” in v2. 16x in NT– including Luke 6:29: “if anyone strikes you on the cheek, offer the other also.” From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + echo (see note XI above). This is present, to show, bring, give, offer to hold near.

for he lovesXXX our people,XXXI and it is he who builtXXXII our synagogueXXXIII for us.” 

Notes on verse 5

XXX “loves” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
XXXI “people” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XXXII “built” = oikodomeo. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
XXXIII “synagogue” = sunagoge. Related to “worthy” in v4. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note XXVIII above). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.

And Jesus wentXXXIV with them, but when he was not farXXXV from the house,XXXVI the centurion sentXXXVII friendsXXXVIII

Notes on verse 6a

XXXIV “went” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XXXV “far” = makran. 9x in NT. From makros (long, long lasting); from mekos (length); probably related to megas (great or large). This is far off, remote, far away in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXVI “house” = oikia. Related to “built” in v5. From oikos (see note XXXII above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
XXXVII “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
XXXVIII “friends” = philos. This is dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person.

to say to him, “Lord,XXXIX do not troubleXL yourself, for I am not worthyXLI to have you comeXLII under my roof;XLIII 

Notes on verse 6b

XXXIX “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XL “trouble” = skullo. 4x in NT. This is to skin or flay. Figuratively, it can be to distress, annoy, or harass.
XLI “worthy” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
XLII “come” = eiserchomai. Same as “entered” in v1. See note VI above.
XLIII “roof” = stege. 3x in NT. From stego (cover tightly, conceal, endure patiently, to put something under a roof, forbearing) OR from tegos (thatch of a building). This is a roof of a house that is flat.

therefore I did not presumeXLIV to comeXLV to you. But only speak the word,XLVI and let my servantXLVII be healed.XLVIII 

Notes on verse 7

XLIV “presume” = axioo. Related to “worthy” in v4 & “synagogue” in v5. 7x in NT. From axios (see note XXVIII above). This is to consider worthy, deserve, see something as good.
XLV “come” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v3. See note XXI above.
XLVI “word” = logos. Related to “saying” in v4. From lego (see note XXVI above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XLVII “servant” = pais. Perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is child, youth, servant, or slave.
XLVIII “healed” = iaomai. This is to heal, particularly from a physical illness, but it could also be a spiritual difficulty. This is to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense.

For I also am a manXLIX setL under authority,LI with soldiersLII under me, and I say to one, ‘Go,’ and he goes,

Notes on verse 8a

XLIX “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
L “set” = tasso. 9x in NT. This word was common in military settings to mean appoint or commission to a certain status. It referred to arranging in a specified order, setting in place, or sending to a specific task.
LI “authority” = exousia. Related to “highly valued” in v2. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note X above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
LII “soldiers” = stratiotes. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.

and to another,LIII ‘Come,’LIV and he comes,LV and to my slave, ‘DoLVI this,’ and the slave does it.” 

Notes on verse 8b

LIII “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
LIV “come” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v3. See note XXI above.
LV “comes” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v3. See note XXI above.
LVI “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.

When Jesus heard this he was amazedLVII at him, and, turningLVIII to the crowdLIX followingLX him,

Notes on verse 9a

LVII “amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
LVIII “turning” = strepho. From trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn). This is to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one.
LIX “crowd” = ochlos. Related to “was” in v2 & “do” in v4. Perhaps from echo (see note XI above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
LX “following” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.

he said, “I tell you, not even in IsraelLXI have I foundLXII suchLXIII faith.”LXIV 

Notes on verse 9b

LXI “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.
LXII “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXIII “such” = tosoutos. From tosos (so much) + houtos (this; third person pronoun); {perhaps from ho (the) + autos (the third person pronoun)}. This is so much of something, whether in number, space, size, etc.
LXIV “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

10 When those who had been sentLXV returnedLXVI to the house,LXVII they found the slave in good health.LXVIII

Notes on verse 10

LXV “sent” = pempo. Same as “sent” in v6. See note XXXVII above.
LXVI “returned” = hupostrepho. Related to “turning” in v9. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (see note LVIII above). This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.
LXVII “house” = oikos. Related to “built” in v5 & “house” in v6. See note XXXII above.
LXVIII “good health” = hugiaino. 12x in NT. From hugies (healthy, whole, pure, normal, restored, wholesome; figuratively, sound or true teaching); from the base of auxano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is healthy, sound, reasonable, pure, total health. This is the root that “hygiene” comes from.

11 LXIXSoonLXX afterward he wentLXXI to a townLXXII

Notes on verse 11a

LXIX {untranslated} = ginomai. Related to “came” in v14. See note XXIII above.
LXX “soon” = hexes. Related to “was” in v2 & “do” in v4 & “crowd” in v9. 5x in NT. From echo (see note XI above).  This is soon, the next day. It is some reference to a successive order.
LXXI “went” = poreuomai. Same as “went” in v6. See note XXXIV above.
LXXII “town” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.

calledLXXIII Nain,LXXIV and his disciplesLXXV and a largeLXXVI crowd went withLXXVII him. 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXIII “called” = kaleo. Related to “appealed” in v4. See note XXIV above.
LXXIV “Nain” = Nain. 1x in NT. From Hebrew related to naah (to be at home and so pleasant, beautiful). This is Nain, meaning “pleasant” or “beauty.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Nain.html#.X-uRL9hKhPY.
LXXV “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
LXXVI “large” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
LXXVII “went with” = sumporeuomai. Related to “went” in v6. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + poreuomai (see note XXXIV above). This is to journey together or assemble.

12 As he approachedLXXVIII the gateLXXIX of the town,LXXX a man who had diedLXXXI was being carried out.LXXXII

Notes on verse 12a

LXXVIII “approached” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.
LXXIX “gate” = pule. 10x in NT. This is gate, large entrance to a city or a fortress. It is often used for an exit way. Figuratively, it can refer to authority and power.
LXXX {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LXXXI “died” = thnesko. 9x in NT. This is to die or be dead in a spiritual or literal sense.
LXXXII “carried out” = ekkomizo. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is to carry out (as in out of the gate of the city).

He was his mother’sLXXXIII onlyLXXXIV son,LXXXV and she was a widow,LXXXVI and with her was a largeLXXXVII crowd from the town. 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXXIII “mother’s” = meter. This is mother in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIV “only” = monogenes. Related to “came” in v4 & {untranslated} in v11. 9x in NT. From monos (alone, only, solitary, sole, mere, desolate); {probably from meno (to stay, remain, wait, continue, endure)} + genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); {from ginomai (see note XXIII above)}. This is only begotten, unique, one and only, one of a kind.
LXXXV “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
LXXXVI “widow” = chera. Perhaps from the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn). This is widow literally or figuratively.
LXXXVII “large” = hikanos. Same as “worthy” in v6. See note XLI above.

13 When the Lord sawLXXXVIII her, he was moved with compassionLXXXIX for her and said to her, “Do not cry.”XC 

Notes on verse 13

LXXXVIII “saw” = horao. Related to “man” in v8. See note XLIX above.
LXXXIX “moved with compassion” = splagchnizomai. 12x in NT– 8x of Jesus having compassion on people or crowds. From splanxnon (inner organs, entrails; seen as the root of emotions). This is moved to compassion from deep within oneself – visceral empathy or sympathy, being deeply moved.
XC “cry” = klaio. This is to weep, lament, or sob. It is weeping aloud.

14 Then he came forwardXCI and touchedXCII the bier,XCIII

Notes on verse 14a

XCI “came forward” = proserchomai. Related to “entered” in v1 & “come” in v3. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note VI above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
XCII “touched” = haptomai. From hapto (to touch, handle, kindle, lay hold of). This is a touch that has an impact on what is being touched – it has an influence on the recipient so that the recipient is changed.
XCIII “bier” = soros. 1x in NT. Perhaps akin to soreuo (to load, pile up literally or figuratively); from soros (a heap). This is something that holds a body for a funeral – either an urn or a coffin. Here, by analogy, it refers to the bier bearing the receptacle.

and the bearersXCIV stopped.XCV And he said, “Young man,XCVI I say to you, rise!”XCVII 

Notes on verse 14b

XCIV “bearers” = bastazo. Perhaps from the base of basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.
XCV “stopped” = histemi. Related to “sent” in v3. See note XVII above.
XCVI “young man” = neaniskos. 11x in NT. From neanias (youth, young man; someone in their prime to the age of 40); from neos (young, new, youth, person). This is a youth or young man in their prime up to 40.
XCVII “rise” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.

15 The deadXCVIII man sat upXCIX and beganC to speak, and Jesus gaveCI him to his mother. 

Notes on verse 15

XCVIII “deadd” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
XCIX “sat up” = anakathizo. 2x in NT– Jesus raising the Widow’s son at Nain in Luke 7:15 & Peter raising Tabitha in Acts 9:40. From ana (up, again, back, anew) + kathizo (to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest); {from kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit up or set up.
C “began” = archomai. Related to “centurion” in v2. See note VIII above.
CI “gave” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.

16 FearCII seizedCIII all of them, and they glorifiedCIV God,CV

Notes on verse 16a

CII “fear” = phobos. From phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect.
CIII “seized” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
CIV “glorified” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
CV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

saying, “A greatCVI prophetCVII has risenCVIII among us!” and “God has visitedCIX his people!”CX 

Notes on verse 16b

CVI “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CVII “prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CVIII “risen” = egeiro. Same as “rise” in v14. See note XCVII above.
CIX “visited” = episkeptomai. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + the base of skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully); perhaps related to skapto (to dig or excavate)}. This is to look at, look out for, see, select, visit.
CX “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v1. See note V above.

17 This word about him spreadCXI throughout the wholeCXII of JudeaCXIII and all the surrounding region.CXIV

Notes on verse 17

CXI “spread” = exerchomai. Related to “entered” in v1 & “come” in v3 & “came forward” in v14. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note VI above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
CXII “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CXIII “Judea” = Ioudaia. Related to “Jewish” in v3. Related to Ioudaios (see note XVIII above). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
CXIV “surrounding region” = perichoros. Related to “widow” in v12. 9x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + chora (space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town); {from chasma (see note LXXXVI above)}. This is neighboring, surrounding region, circum-adjacent.

18 The disciples of JohnCXV reportedCXVI all these things to him. So John summonedCXVII twoCXVIII of his disciples 19 and sentCXIX them to the Lord to ask, “Are you the one who is to come,CXX or are we to expectCXXI someone else?” 

Notes on verses 18-19

CXV “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v3. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XVI above)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
CXVI “reported” = apaggello. Related to “worthy” in v4 & “synagogue” in v5 & “presume” in v7.
CXVII “summoned” = proskaleo. Related to “appealed” in v4 & “called” in v11. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (see note XXVIII above)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
CXVIII “two” = duo. This is two or both.
CXIX “sent” = pempo.  Same as “sent” in v6. See note XXXVII above.
CXX “come” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v3. See note XXI above.
CXXI “expect” = prosdokao. 16x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + dokeuo (to watch). This is to await, anticipate, expect, look for.

20 When the menCXXII had comeCXXIII to him, they said, “John the BaptistCXXIV has sentCXXV us to you to ask, ‘Are you the one who is to come,CXXVI or are we to expect someone else?’” 

Notes on verse 20

CXXII “men” = aner. Related to “man” in v8. See note XLIX above.
CXXIII “come” = paraginomai. Same as “came” in v4. See note XXIII above.
CXXIV “Baptist” = Baptistes. 12x in NT. From baptizo (to submerge, wash, or immerse; used specially for baptism); from bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is baptizer or Baptist. The term is only used for John the Baptist.
CXXV “sent” = apostello. Same as “sent” in v3. See note XVII above.
CXXVI “come” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v3. See note XXI above.

21 Jesus had just thenCXXVII curedCXXVIII manyCXXIX people of diseases,CXXX afflictions,CXXXI

Notes on verse 21a

CXXVII “just then” = en + ekeinos + ho + hora. Literally, “at that very hour.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
CXXVIII “cured” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.
CXXIX “many” = polus. Same as “large” in v11. See note LXXVI above.
CXXX “diseases” = nosos. 11x in NT. This refers to a disease that is chronic and enduring. It can also be used for a moral failing.
CXXXI “afflictions” = mastix. 6x in NT. Probably from massaomai (to chew, gnaw, consume); from masso (to handle, squeeze). This is a whip that had leather straps with metal bits sewn onto them. It is figurative for great pain, suffering, disease, or plague. It is a Roman whip used on criminals, the flagellum.

and evilCXXXII spiritsCXXXIII and had givenCXXXIV sightCXXXV to many who were blind.CXXXVI 

Notes on verse 21b

CXXXII “evil” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
CXXXIII “spirits” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CXXXIV “given” = charizomai. From charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to extend grace or favor, to grant forgiveness, to pardon or rescue.
CXXXV “sight” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
CXXXVI “blind” = tuphlos. Derivation unclear. Perhaps from tuphoo (to be conceited, foolish, puffed up, haughty; properly, to blow smoke; figuratively being muddled or cloudy in mind; poor judgment that harms spiritual clarity; also, being covered with smoke – so filled with pride); from tuphos (smoke, vanity, arrogance); from tupho (to raise smoke, smolder, slowly consume without flame). This is blind or a blind person – perhaps in the sense of smoke making things opaque and impossible to see. This is blind literally or figuratively.

22 And he answered them, “Go and tellCXXXVII John what you have seen and heard: the blind receive their sight;CXXXVIII the lameCXXXIX walk;CXL

Notes on verse 22a

CXXXVII “tell” = apaggello. Same as “reported” in v18. See note CXVI above.
CXXXVIII “receive…sight” = anablepo. Related to “sight” in v21. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + blepo (see note CXXXV above). This is to look up or regain sight.
CXXXIX “lame” = cholos. 14x in NT. This is lame or limping. It can also mean missing a foot.
CXL “walk” = peripateo. Related to “servant” in v7. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (see note XLVII above)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.

those with a skin diseaseCXLI are cleansed;CXLII the deafCXLIII hear;

Notes on verse 22b

CXLI “those with skin disease” = lepros. 9x in NT. From lepis (fish scale, skin flake); from lepo (to peel). This is scaly or leprous. It can also refer to a person with leprosy.
CXLII “cleansed” = katharizo. From katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying). This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.
CXLIII “deaf” = kophos. 14x in NT. Perhaps from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is literally blunted or dull. Figuratively, it can be deaf or mute or a person who is deaf or mute.

the dead are raised;CXLIV the poorCXLV have good news broughtCXLVI to them. 23 And blessedCXLVII is anyone who takes no offenseCXLVIII at me.”

Notes on verses 22c-23

CXLIV “are raised” = egeiro. Same as “rise” in v14. See note XCVII above.
CXLV “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.
CXLVI “have good news brought” = euaggelizo. Related to “worthy” in v4 & “synagogue” in v5 & “presume” in v7 & “reported” in v18. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (see note CXVII above). This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
CXLVII “blessed” = makarios. From makar (happy); from mak– (to become long or large). This is blessed, happy, fortunate. It is when God’s grace/abundance is extended.
CXLVIII “takes…offense” = skandalizo. From skandalon (the bait or portion of the trap that closes down on the victim – the trap’s trigger; a stumbling block, offense, or cause for error; something that sets into motion a negative cause and effect; something that causes one to stumble); perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is to put a stumbling block in someone’s way. Figuratively, causing someone to sin or preventing them from good action. It can also mean to shock or offend. Literally, this is falling into a trap or tripping someone up. So, here, enticing someone to sin or apostasy.

24 When John’s messengersCXLIX had gone,CL Jesus began to speak to the crowds about John: “What did you go outCLI into the wildernessCLII to look at?CLIII

Notes on verse 24a

CXLIX “messengers” = aggelos. Related to “worthy” in v4 & “synagogue” in v5 & “presume” in v7 & “reported” in v18 & “have good news brought” in v22. See note CXVII above.
CL “gone” = aperchomai. Related to “entered” in v1 & “come” in v3 & “came forward” in v14 & “spread” in v17. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note VI above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
CLI “go out” = exerchomai. Same as “spread” in v17. See note CXI above.
CLII “wilderness” = eremos. Properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated. It could be a deserted area or a desert place. It could be seen as secluded, solitary, or lonesome. Any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally.
CLIII “look at” = theaomai. Related to “amazed” in v9. See note LVII above.

A reedCLIV shakenCLV by the wind?CLVI 25 What, then, did you go out to see? SomeoneCLVII dressedCLVIII in softCLIX robes?CLX

Notes on verses 24b-25a

CLIV “reed” = kalamos. 12x in NT. This is a reed, whether the plant itself or a stem that is like the reed. It can also imply a staff, pen, or measuring rod.
CLV “shaken” = saleuo. 15x in NT. From salos (tossing, agitation, rolling – like the sea swells). This is to agitate or shake up. It can mean to disturb, topple, incite, or destroy.
CLVI “wind” = anemos. From aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is wind or a gust of air. It can also be used figuratively for empty doctrines.
CLVII “someone” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v8. See note XLIX above.
CLVIII “dressed” = amphiennumi. 4x in NT– 2x God clothes the grass of the field (Mt 6:30) (Lk 12:28) and 2x when Jesus speaks of John the Baptist (Mt 11:8) (Lk 7:25). From amphoteroi (both, on both sides, around, all) + hennumi (to enrobe, clothe, invest). This is to put on, clothe, be dressed.
CLIX “soft” = malakos. 4x in NT. This is soft, delicate – so, fine clothing. Figuratively used to call one effeminate.
CLX “robes” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.

Look,CLXI those who put on fineCLXII clothingCLXIII

Notes on verse 25b

CLXI “look” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v12. See note LXXX above.
CLXII “fine” = endoxos. Related to “glorified” in v16. 4x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + doxa (see note CIV above). This is litearlly in glolry so it conveys a lofty status – honor, dignity. It can also be something splendid or noble.
CLXIII “clothing” = himatismos. Related to “robes” in v25. 6x in NT. From himatizo (to clothe, dress, give clothing); from himation (see note CLX above) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is clothing, apparel.

and liveCLXIV in luxuryCLXV are in royal palaces.CLXVI 26 What, then, did you go out to see? A prophet? Yes,CLXVII I tell you, and moreCLXVIII than a prophet. 

Notes on verses 25c-26

CLXIV “live” = huparcho. Related to “centurion” in v2 & “began” in v15. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (see note VIII above). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
CLXV “luxury” = truphe. 2x in NT. From thrupto (to break or weaken; figuratively, it evokes a spiritual and physical weakening due to overindulgence). This is softness or an overindulgence in luxury. It is someone so ensconced in luxury that it is detrimental to them spiritually and physically. It can also refer to revelry.
CLXVI “royal palaces” = basileios. Related to “bearers” in v14. 2x in NT. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (see note XCIV above). This is royal, palace, kingly, regal.
CLXVII “yes” = nai. This is yes, truly, indeed. It is a strong affirmation.
CLXVIII “more” = perissos. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently.

27 This is the one about whom it is written,CLXIX

‘See,CLXX I am sendingCLXXI my messenger aheadCLXXII of you,
    who will prepareCLXXIII your wayCLXXIV before you.’

Notes on verse 27

CLXIX “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
CLXX “see” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v12. See note LXXX above.
CLXXI “sending” = apostello. Same as “sent” in v3. See note XVII above.
CLXXII {untranslated} = prosopon. Related to “man” in v8 & “saw” in v13. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note XLIX above). This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
CLXXIII “prepare” = kataskeuazo. 11x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, throughout) + skeuazo (to prepare using a tool); {from skeuos (tool, container, property, goods)}. This is to prepare, build, or ordain. It denotes preparing with the use of tools and with skill.
CLXXIV “way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.

28 “I tell you, among those bornCLXXV of womenCLXXVI no one is greaterCLXXVII than John, yet the leastCLXXVIII in the kingdomCLXXIX of God is greater than he.” 

Notes on verse 28

CLXXV “born” = gennetos. Related to “came” in v4 & {untranslated} in v11 & “only” in v12. 2x in NT. From gennao (to beget, give birth to, or bring forth; properly, procreation by the father, but used of the mother by extension; figuratively, to regenerate); from genna (descent, birth); from genos (see note LXXXIV above). This is born.
CLXXVI “woman” = gune. Related to “came” in v4 & {untranslated} in v11 & “only” in v12 & “born” in v28. Perhaps from ginomai (see note XXIII above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CLXXVII “greater” = megas. Same as “great” in v16. See note CVI above.
CLXXVIII “least” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
CLXXIX “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “bearers” in v14 & “royal palaces” in v25. From basileus (see CLXVI above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.

29 (And all the peopleCLXXX who heard this, including the tax collectors,CLXXXI acknowledged the justiceCLXXXII of God, having been baptizedCLXXXIII with John’s baptism.CLXXXIV 

Notes on verse 29

CLXXX “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v1. See note V above.
CLXXXI “tax collectors” = telones. Related to “death” in v2. From telos (see note XIV above) + oneomai (to buy); {from onos (a price or sum)}. This is tax collector, one who worked for the Romans taking taxes from Jews. It also meant the toll house. Literally, this is “paying at the end.”
CLXXXII “acknowledged the justice” = dikaioo. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is to be righteous, plead the cause of, justify, acquit. Properly, it is being approved, particularly carrying the weight of a legal judgment. It is upright, render just, or innocent.
CLXXXIII “baptized” = baptizo. Related to “Baptist” in v20. See note CXXIV above.
CLXXXIV “baptism” = baptisma. Related to “Baptist” in v20 & “baptized” in v29. From baptizo (see note CXXIV above). This is dipping or sinking. Also, the rite of baptism.

30 But the PhariseesCLXXXV and the experts in the law,CLXXXVI not having been baptized by him, rejectedCLXXXVII God’s purposeCLXXXVIII for themselves.)

Notes on verse 30

CLXXXV “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
CLXXXVI “experts in the law” = nomikos. 9x in NT. From nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}. This is about the law or one who is knowledgeable in the law, a lawyer. It refers to the law of and derived from the Old Testament – Jewish law including the tradition of the elders. This is someone with a level of expertise beyond that of a scribe. Ezra would be a lawyer.
CLXXXVII “rejected” = atheteo. From athetos (not having position or place); {from a (not) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is setting something aside, ignoring or nullifying it, refusing or rejecting. It can also mean to annul or cancel out the effect of something. Literally, this is to un-place. It can also be rejecting something, despising it, or considering something invalid.
CLXXXVIII “purpose” = boule. 12x in NT. From boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination). This is counsel, plan, purpose, decision. It refers to wisdom that comes from deliberation.

31 “To what, then, will I compareCLXXXIX the peopleCXC of this generation,CXCI and what are they like?CXCII 

Notes on verse 31

CLXXXIX “compare” = homoioo. 15x in NT. From homoios (similar to, resembling, like); from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is to compare, liken, resemble, become similar.
CXC “people” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v8. See note XLIX above.
CXCI “generation” = genea. Related to “came” in v4 & {untranslated} in v11 & “only” in v12 & “born” and “women” in v28. From genos (see note LXXXIV above). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.
CXCII “like” = homoios. Related to “compare” in v31. See note CLXXXIX above.

32 They are like childrenCXCIII sittingCXCIV in the marketplaceCXCV and callingCXCVI to one another,

Notes on verse 32a

CXCIII “children” = paidion. Related to “servant” in v7 & “walk” in v22. From pais (see note XLVII above). This is a child as one who is still being educated or trained. Perhaps one seven years old or younger. Used figuratively for an immature Christian.
CXCIV “sitting” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
CXCV “marketplace” = agora. 11x in NT From ageiro (to gather). This is assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare. This is where “agoraphobia” comes from.
CXCVI “calling” = prosphoneo. Related to “prophet” in v16. 7x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + phoneo (to call out, summon, shout, address; making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument); from phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi (see note CVII above). This is to call to, address, give a speech, summon, exclaim.

‘We played the fluteCXCVII for you, and you did not dance;CXCVIII
    we wailed,CXCIX and you did not weep.’CC

Notes on verse 32b

CXCVII “played the flute” = auleo. 3x in NT. From aulos (pipe or flute); from aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is to ply on a flute or on a pipe.
CXCVIII “dance” = orcheomai. 4x in NT. Perhaps from orchos (a row, ring). This is to dance with repeated motion.
CXCIX “wailed” = threneo. 4x in NT. From thr