Luke 9:28-45

Luke 9:28-45
Transfiguration, Narrative Lectionary 329


28 INow about eight days after these sayingsII Jesus tookIII with him

Notes on verse 28a

I {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
II “sayings” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
III “took” = paralambano. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.

PeterIV and JohnV and James,VI and went upVII on the mountain to pray.VIII

Notes on verse 28b

IV “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
V “John” = Ioannes. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel); {from havah (to become); from hayah (to be, exist, happen)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
VI “James” = Iakobos. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
VII “went up” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
VIII “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.

29 AndIX while he was praying, the appearanceX of his faceXI changed,XII

Notes on verse 29a

IX {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v28. See note I above.
X “appearance” = eidos. 5x in NT– including “Spirit descended upon him in bodily form like a dove” in Luke 3:22, at the Transfiguration, “the appearance of his face changed” in Luke 9:29; also “we walk by faith, not by sight” in 2 Corinthians 5:7. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is form, shape, sight, appearance.
XI “face” = prosopon. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face) {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
XII “changed” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.

and his clothesXIII became dazzlingXIV white.XV 

Notes on verse 29b

XIII “clothes” = himatismos. 6x in NT. From himatizo (to clothe, dress, give clothing); from himation (the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle; worn loosely over a tunic); from heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is clothing, apparel.
XIV “became dazzling” = exastrapto. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + astrapto (to flash with or like lightning, be dazzling); {probably from aster (star literally or figuratively); probably from stronnumi or stronnuo (to spread, make a bed)}. This is to gleam, flash like lightning, be radiant. Can describe clothes that are very white or bright.
XV “white” = leukos. Related to luke (light). This is bright, white, or brilliant.

30 SuddenlyXVI they saw two men,XVII MosesXVIII and Elijah,XIX talking to him. 

Notes on verse 30

XVI “suddenly” = idou. Related to “appearance” in v29. From eido (see note X above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XVII “men” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XVIII “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
XIX “Elijah” = Elias. Related to “John” in v28. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from el (God, god) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note V above)}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”

31 They appearedXX in gloryXXI and were speaking of his departure,XXII

Notes on verse 31a

XX “appeared” = horao. Perhaps related to “face” in v29. See note XI above.
XXI “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
XXII “departure” = exodos. 3x in NT. From ek (from out, from out of) + hodos (way, road, path, journey). This is a departure, death, or exodus. It is where the word “exodus” come from.

which he was aboutXXIII to accomplishXXIV at Jerusalem.XXV 

Notes on verse 31b

XXIII “was about” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
XXIV “accomplish” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
XXV “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

32 Now Peter and his companionsXXVI were weighed downXXVII with sleep; but since they had stayed awake,XXVIII they sawXXIX his glory and the two men who stood withXXX him. 

Notes on verse 32

XXVI “companions” = ho + sun + autos. Literally “those with him.”
XXVII “weighed down” = bareo. 6x in NT. From barus (heavy, burdensome; figuratively, violent, oppressive; that which presses down on someone so that they cannot move freely); from the same as baros (weight, burden in a literal or figurative sense; authority). This is heavy, press, weigh down, or burden.
XXVIII “stayed awake” = diagregoreo. 1x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + gregoreo (to be or stay awake, watch. Figuratively, it can be alertness or vigilance); {from egeiro (to awake, raise up or lift up; to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death; figuratively, rising from inactivity or from ruins)}. This is to be totally awake.
XXIX “saw” = horao. Same as “appeared” in v31. See note XX above.
XXX “stood with” = sunistemi. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is to establish, exhibit, demonstrate, stand together, prove.

33 XXXIJust as they were leaving him, Peter said to Jesus,XXXII “Master,XXXIII it is goodXXXIV for us to be here;

Notes on verse 33a

XXXI {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v28. See note I above.
XXXII “Jesus” = Iesous. Related to “John” in v28 & “Elijah” in v30. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (see note V above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXXIII “Master” = epistates. Related to “stood with” in v32. 7x in NT – all in Luke. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + histemi (see note XXX above). This is master, teacher – the one in charge, the leader.
XXXIV “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.

let us makeXXXV three dwellings,XXXVI one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah”—not knowingXXXVII what he said. 

Notes on verse 33b

XXXV “make” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XXXVI “dwellings” = skene. Perhaps related to skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense) or perhaps related to skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is a tent, booth, tabernacle, or dwelling. It could be a cloth hut. This is a tent in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXVII “knowing” = eido. Related to “appearance” in v29 & “suddenly” in v30. See note X above.

34 While he was saying this, a cloudXXXVIII cameXXXIX and overshadowedXL them; and they were terrifiedXLI as they entered the cloud. 

Notes on verse 34

XXXVIII “cloud” = nephele. From nephos (cloud; figurative for a great crowd or multitude). This is cloud or cloudiness.
XXXIX “came” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v28. See note I above.
XL “overshadowed” = episkiazo. Related to “dwellings” in v33. 5x in NT– 3x in the Transfiguration, 1x of the annunciation, 1x of Peter healing the sick with his shadow. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + skia (see note XXXVI above). This is to envelop, cast a shadow on.
XLI “terrified” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.

35 Then from the cloud came a voiceXLII that said, “This is my Son, my Chosen;XLIII listenXLIV to him!” 

Notes on verse 35

XLII “voice” = phone. Probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
XLIII “chosen” = eklego. Related to “sayings” in v28. From ek (from, from out of) + lego (see note II above). This is to select or choose. It is making a personal choice – a favorite.
XLIV “listen” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.

36 When the voice had spoken,XLV Jesus was foundXLVI alone. And they kept silentXLVII and in those days toldXLVIII no one any of the things they had seen.

Notes on verse 36

XLV “spoken” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v28. See note I above.
XLVI “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
XLVII “kept silent” = sigao. 10x in NT. From sige (silence, hush); perhaps from sizo (to hiss or hush). This is to be silent or hold peace.
XLVIII “told” = apaggello. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.

37 XLIXOn the nextL day, when they had come down from the mountain, a great crowd metLI him. 

Notes on verse 37

XLIX {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v28. See note I above.
L “next” = hexes. 5x in NT. From echo (to have, hold, possess). This is next, after, tomorrow.
LI “met” = sunatao. 6x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + antao (to meet with personally) OR from sun (with, together with) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to meet, happen, encounter.

38 JustLII then a man from the crowd shouted,LIII “Teacher,LIV I begLV you to lookLVI at my son; he is my only child.LVII 

Notes on verse 38

LII “just” = idou. Same as “suddenly” in v30. See note XVI above.
LIII “shouted” = boao. 12x in NT. From boe (a cry or shout). This is cry out, make a distress call, ask for desperately need assistance.
LIV “Teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
LV “beg” = deomai. From deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited) This is having an urgent need because one is missing or needing something so it is an earnest appeal or pressing request.
LVI “look” = epiblepo. 3x in NT – including the Magnificat “God has looked with favor on the lowliness of God’s servant” in Luke 1:48. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look at, to regard with favor, to pay focused attention or give special regard to something, to gaze at with pity, to be partial to.
LVII “only child” = monogenes. Related to {untranslated} in v28. 9x in NT. From monos (alone, only, single, desolate, mere) + genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note I above)}. This is one and only, unique, only-begotten.

39 Suddenly a spiritLVIII seizesLIX him, and all at once he shrieks.LX

Notes on verse 39a

LVIII “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LIX “seizes” = lambano. Related to “took” in v28. See note III above.
LX “shrieks” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.

It convulsesLXI him until he foamsLXII at the mouth; it maulsLXIII him and will scarcelyLXIV leave him. 

Notes on verse 39b

LXI “convulses” = sparasso. 3x in NT– all 3 in the Gospels of a spirit convulsing a person. Akin to spairo (to gasp). This is to shake, convulse, mangle, tear.
LXII “foams” = aphros. 1x in NT. This is foam or froth.
LXIII “mauls” = suntribo. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + the same as tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); {from tribo (to rub or thresh)}. This is break in pieces, bruise, shatter, or crush completely.
LXIV “scarcely” = mogis. 1x in NT. From molis (with difficulty, scarcely); from molos (toil). This is with difficulty – it is an action that takes a long time to do and is, thus, quite difficult.

40 I begged your disciplesLXV to cast it out,LXVI but they couldLXVII not.” 

Notes on verse 40

LXV “disciple” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
LXVI “cast…out” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
LXVII “could” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.

41 Jesus answered, “LXVIIIYou faithlessLXIX and perverseLXX generation,LXXI how much longer must I be with you and bear withLXXII you? BringLXXIII your son here.” 

Notes on verse 41

LXVIII {untranslated} = O. 17x in NT. This is O or oh, as an exclamation. It can express strong emotion, urgency, or joy.
LXIX “faithless” = apistos. From a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); {from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust)}. This is unbelieving, incredulous, faithless. It is someone who chooses to reject faith.
LXX “perverse” = diastrepho. 7x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to distort, pervert, to twist something into a different shape than it is meant to be. So, figuratively, it can refer to moral corruption.
LXXI “generation” = genea. Related to {untranslated} in v28 & “only child” in v38. From genos (see note LVII above). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.
LXXII “bear with” = anecho. Related to “next” in v37. 15x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + echo (see note L above). This is to endure, bear with, tolerate, persist, put up with.
LXXIII “bring” = prosago. Related to “told” in v36. 4x in NT. From pros (at, towards, for) + ago (see note XLVIII above). This is to bring, lead towards, approach, summon.

42 While he was coming,LXXIV the demonLXXV dashed him to the groundLXXVI in convulsions.LXXVII

Notes on verse 42a

LXXIV “coming” = proserchomai. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
LXXV “demon” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.
LXXVI “dashed…to the ground” = rhegnumi. 7x in NT. This is to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart. Figuratively, it can be bursting into speech or song or happy emotion. It can also refer to breaking out in spasms.
LXXVII “convulsions” = susparasso. Related to “convulses” in v39. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + sparasso (see note LXI above). This is to throw forcefully down to the ground, to convulse or rend totally.

But Jesus rebukedLXXVIII the uncleanLXXIX spirit, healedLXXX the boy,LXXXI and gave him backLXXXII to his father. 

Notes on verse 42b

LXXVIII “rebuked” = epitimao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + timao (properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor); {from time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to render what is due – to assign the value that is appropriate for the situation. So, it could mean to honor or to warn, to rebuke or to charge. Generally, it is a warning meant to guide someone away from doing something wrong or taking the wrong path. It can imply to forbid.
LXXIX “unclean” = akathartos. From a (not, without) + kathairo (to cleanse or purify by purging out unwanted elements); {from katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying)}. This is unclean or impure, whether a thing or a person. It is something that is not mixed with something that would taint. This is unclean in a ritual or moral sense. It can also mean demonic or foul.
LXXX “healed” = iaomai. This is to heal, particularly from a physical illness, but it could also be a spiritual difficulty. This is to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXI “boy” = pais. Perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is child, youth, servant, or slave.
LXXXII “gave…back” = apodidomi. From apo (from, away from) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is to give back, return, give away. It is to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell.

43 And all were astoundedLXXXIII at the greatnessLXXXIV of God.LXXXV

Notes on verse 43a

LXXXIII “astounded” = ekplesso. 13x in NT. From ek (out, out of) + plesso (to pound, strike, flatten; figuratively, cause a calamity). This is to strike with panic, astonish shock. It is a moment that shakes someone from their senses and leaves them dumbfounded or at a loss.
LXXXIV “greatness” = megaleiotes. 3x in NT. From megaleios (splendid, grand, perefction); from megas (big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.). This is magnificence, glory, splendor.
LXXXV “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

While everyone was amazedLXXXVI at all that he was doing,LXXXVII he said to his disciples, 44 “Let these wordsLXXXVIII sinkLXXXIX into your ears:XC

Notes on verses 43b-44a

LXXXVI “amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
LXXXVII “doing” = poieo. Same as “make” in v33. See note XXXV above.
LXXXVIII “words” = logos. Same as “sayings” in v28. See note II above.
LXXXIX “sink” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
XC “ears” = ous. This is the physical ear, or the perception of hearing, whether physical or cognitive.

The Son of ManXCI is goingXCII to be betrayedXCIII into human hands.”XCIV 

Notes on verse 44b

XCI “Man” = anthropos. Related to “Men” in v30 & “face” in v29. Probably from aner (see note XVII above) + ops (see note XI above). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XCII “is going” = mello. Same as “was about” in v31. See note XXIII above.
XCIII “betrayed” = paradidomi. Related to “gave…back” in v42. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note LXXXII above). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
XCIV “hands” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v44. See note XCI above.

45 But they did not understandXCV this saying;XCVI its meaning was concealedXCVII from them, so that they could not perceiveXCVIII it.

Notes on verse 45a

XCV “not understand” = agnoeo. From a (not, without) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}. This is unaware not to know. Sometimes it is willful ignorance, but other times it is simple not knowing.
XCVI “saying” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
XCVII “concealed” = parakalupto. 1x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is to cover, conceal, veil. It is something that is hidden close by as in something that you miss as a detail because you are too focused on the bigger picture.
XCVIII “perceive” = aisthanomai. 1x in NT. From aio (to perceive by physical senses). This is to know or perceive using sensory information.

And they were afraidXCIX to askC him about this saying.CI

Notes on verse 45b

XCIX “were afraid” = phobeo. Same as “terrified” in v34. See note XLI above.
C “ask” = erotao. Related to “saying” in v45. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (see note XCVI above). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
CI “saying” = rhema. Same as “saying” in v45. See note XCVI above.

Image credit: “The Transfiguration” by Masaru Horie, 2006.

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