Mark 11

Mark 11


When they were approachingI Jerusalem,II at BethphageIII and Bethany,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “approaching” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.
II “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
III “Bethphage” = Bethphage. 3x in NT – all in Jesus’s Palm Sunday entry into Jerusalem. From Aramaic beth phagy (Bethphage, house of unripe figs). This is Bethphage, house of unripe or early figs.
IV “Bethany” = Bethania. 12x in NT. From Aramaic beth anya (house of affliction, misery, wretchedness). This is Bethany.

near the MountV of Olives,VI he sentVII twoVIII of his disciplesIX 

Notes on verse 1b

V “Mount” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.
VI “Olives” = Elaia. 15x in NT. This is olive or olive tree. Sometimes, its refers to the chosen people.
VII “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
VIII “two” = duo. This is two or both.
IX “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

2 and saidX to them, “GoXI into the villageXII ahead of you, and immediatelyXIII as you enterXIV it,

Notes on verse 2a

X “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XI “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
XII “village” = kome. This is a village as contrasted with a city that has a wall.
XIII “immediately” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
XIV “enter” = eisporeuomai. 18x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. This is to enter or journey in in a literal or figurative sense.

you will findXV tiedXVI there a coltXVII that has never been ridden;XVIII

Notes on verse 2b

XV “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
XVI “tied” = deo. To tie, bind, compel, put in chains. This is to bind in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean declaring something unlawful.
XVII “colt” = polos. 12x in NT– all in Jesus’s Palm Sunday entry into Jerusalem. This is foal, colt, or young donkey.
XVIII “has never been ridden” = literally “upon which no person yet has sat.” {untranslated} = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders. “Ridden” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.

untieXIX it and bringXX it. If anyone says to you, ‘Why are you doingXXI this?’ just say this, ‘The LordXXII needsXXIII it and will send it back here immediately.’” 

Notes on verses 2c-3

XIX “untie” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.
XX “bring” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
XXI “doing” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XXII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XXIII “needs” = chreia + echo. Literally, “has need.” Chreia is from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution. Echo is to have, hold, or possess.

They went awayXXIV and found a colt tied near a door,XXV outside in the street.XXVI As they were untying it, some of the bystandersXXVII said to them, “What are you doing, untying the colt?” 

Notes on verses 4-5

XXIV “went away” = aperchomai. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (to come or go). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
XXV “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
XXVI “street” = amphodon. 1x in NT. From the same as amphoteroi (both, around, all); {from ampho (on both sides)} + hodos (way, road, path, journey). This is a place where two ways or roads meet. It could also be a road that runs around some place.
XXVII “bystanders” = ho + ekei + histemi. Literally, “those standing there.” Histemi is related to “sent” in v1. See note VII above.

They told them what JesusXXVIII had said; and they allowedXXIX them to take it. Then they brought the colt to Jesus and threw their cloaksXXX onXXXI it; and he satXXXII on it. 

Notes on verses 6-7

XXVIII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXIX “allowed” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XXX “cloaks” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
XXXI “threw…on” = epiballo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to place on, fall, lay, throw over, think about, waves crashing, emotions emerging.
XXXII “sat” = kathizo. Same as “ridden” in v2. See note XVIII above.

ManyXXXIII people spreadXXXIV their cloaks on the road,XXXV and othersXXXVI spread leafy branchesXXXVII that they had cutXXXVIII in the fields.XXXIX 

Notes on verse 8

XXXIII “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XXXIV “spread” = stronnuo. 6x in NT. This is to spread, strew, make a bed.
XXXV “road” = hodos. Related to “street” in v4. See note XXVI above.
XXXVI “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
XXXVII “leafy branches” = stoibas. 1x in NT. From steibo (to step, stamp). This is a tree branch or bough that is stamped flat.
XXXVIII “cut” = kopto. 8x in NT. This is to cut, strike, cut off. It can also mean beating the chest to lament and so to mourn.
XXXIX “fields” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”

Then those who went aheadXL and those who followedXLI were shouting,XLII

Notes on verse 9a

XL “went ahead” = proago. Related to “go” in v2. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note XI above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
XLI “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
XLII “shouting” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.

    Blessed isXLIV the one who comesXLV in the nameXLVI of the Lord!

Notes on verse 9b

XLIII “hosanna” = hosanna. Related to “Jesus” in v6. 6x in NT. From Hebrew yasha (see note XXVIII above) + na (particle used for requests or for urging; can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh). This is Hosanna – save, we pray. It started as a call for help, but later became a cry of happiness (anticipating the help coming). It can be save now, please save, or oh, save.
XLIV “blessed is” = eulogeo. Related to “said” in v2. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note X above)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
XLV “comes” = erchomai. Related to “went away” in v4. See note XXIV above.
XLVI “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

10     Blessed is the coming kingdomXLVII of our ancestorXLVIII David!XLIX
Hosanna in the highestL heaven!”

Notes on verse 10

XLVII “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
XLVIII “ancestor” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XLIX “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
L “highest” = hupistos. 13x in NT. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond) This is highest, heights, heaven. It can also refer to God as Most High or the Supreme One.

11 Then he enteredLI Jerusalem and went into the temple;LII and when he had looked aroundLIII at everything,LIV

Notes on verse 11a

LI “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “went away” in v4 & “comes” in v9. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XXIV above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
LII “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.
LIII “looked around” = periblepo.  7x in NT- 6x in Mark & 1x in Luke. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to survey, look around closely, gaze about.
LIV “everything” = pas. This is all or every.

as itLV wasLVI already late,LVII he went outLVIII to Bethany with the twelve.LIX

Notes on verse 11b

LV “it” = ho + hora. Literally, “the hour.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
LVI “was” = eimi. This is to be or exist.
LVII “late” = opse. 3x in NT. From opiso (back, behind, after); from the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back). This is after, late, in the end, in the evening.
LVIII “went out” = exerchomai. Related to “went away” in v4 & “comes” in v9 & “entered” in v11. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XXIV above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
LIX “twelve” = dodeka. Related to “two” in v1. From duo (see note VIII above) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.

12 On the following day, when they cameLX from Bethany, he was hungry.LXI 13 SeeingLXII in the distance a fig tree inLXIII leaf,LXIV he wentLXV to see whether perhaps he would find anything on it. When he came to it, he found nothing but leaves, for it was not the seasonLXVI for figs. 

Notes on verses 12-13

LX “came” = exerchomai. Same as “went out” in v11. See note LVIII above.
LXI “was hungry” = peinao. From peina (hunger); related to penomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is to hunger, be needy, or desire earnestly. It can be being famished in a definitive sense or in comparison to someone or something else. Figuratively, this means to crave.
LXII “seeing” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
LXIII “in” = echo. Literally, “having.” Same as “needs” in v3. See note XXIII above.
LXIV “leaf” = phullon. 6x in NT. Perhaps from the same as phule (clan, tribe, lineage); {from phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow). This is a sprout or a leaf.
LXV “went” = erchomai. Same as “comes” in v9. See note XLV above.
LXVI “season” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.

14 He said to it, “May no one ever eatLXVII fruitLXVIII from you again.”LXIX And his disciples heardLXX it.

Notes on verse 14

LXVII “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
LXVIII “fruit” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.
LXIX “ever…again” = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “to the age.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
LXX “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.

15 Then they came to Jerusalem. And he entered the temple and beganLXXI to drive outLXXII those who were sellingLXXIII and those who were buyingLXXIV in the temple,

Notes on verse 15a

LXXI “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
LXXII “drive out” = ekballo. Related to “threw…on” in v7. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (see note XXXI above). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIII “selling” = poleo. This is to barter or sell. It can also refer to the thing that is sold.
LXXIV “buying” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.

and he overturnedLXXV the tablesLXXVI of the money changersLXXVII

Notes on verse 15b

LXXV “overturned” = katastrepho. 2x in NT– both in reference to the money changers’ tables. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to overturn literally or figuratively – to be upside down, overthrow or ruin.
LXXVI “tables” = trapeza. 15x in NT. Probably from tessares (four; figuratively, can mean total inclusion or universality) + peze (by foot or land) or pezos (by foot or land); {from pous (foot)}. This is a table – whether for eating or conducting business. Literally, four feet. This is where the word “trapeze” comes from.
LXXVII “money changers” = kollubistes. 3x in NT. From kollubos (a small coin); probably related to kollourion (a salve or poultice for the eye); see kollurion (bread roll or a poultice for the eye in that shape); {probably from kollix (bread roll) or kollao (to glue together; joining, spending time with, or being intimately connected to; can be used for marriage, joining the church, clinging, or adhering to something; can also be used medically for uniting wounds); {from kolla (glue)}}. This is one who deals in coins – a money changer who exchanged Gentile currency for Jewish.

and the seatsLXXVIII of those who sold doves;LXXIX 16 and he would not allow anyone to carryLXXX anythingLXXXI through the temple. 

Notes on verses 15c-16

LXXVIII “seats” = kathedra. Related to “ridden” in v2. 3x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + the same as hedraios (sitting, well-seated, immovable; figuratively, steadfast, firm, morally fixed); {from hedra (seat); related to hezomai (see note XVIII above)}. This a seat or bench in a literal or figurative sense. This is the root of “cathedral.”
LXXIX “doves” = peristera. 10x in NT. This is dove or pigeon.
LXXX “carry” = diaphero. Related to “bring” in v2. 13x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry through as in all the way to the end. It is differing or fully distinguishing – separating by comparison. Literally, it means transport – figuratively it can mean report or surpass.
LXXXI “anything” = skeuos. This is a vessel, object, article, property, a tool. It is an implement or other equipment in a literal or figurative sense. It could also refer to a vessel of mercy or a wife.

17 He was teachingLXXXII and saying, “Is it not written,LXXXIII

‘My houseLXXXIV shall be calledLXXXV a house of prayerLXXXVI for all the nations’?LXXXVII

Notes on verse 17a

LXXXII “teaching” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
LXXXIII “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
LXXXIV “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
LXXXV “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
LXXXVI “prayer” = proseuche. From proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.
LXXXVII “nations” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

    But you have madeLXXXVIII it a denLXXXIX of robbers.”XC

Notes on verse 17b

LXXXVIII “made” = poieo. Same as “doing” in v3. See note XXI above.
LXXXIX “den” = spelaion. 6x in NT. From speos (cave, grotto). This is a cavern, which implies a place to hide. So, this word can also mean den or hideout. This is the word used for “den of robbers” in Matthew 21:13. Also, this is where the word “spelunk” comes from.
XC “robbers” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barrabbas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.

18 And when the chief priestsXCI and the scribesXCII heard it, they kept lookingXCIII for a way to killXCIV him;

Notes on verse 18a

XCI “chief priests” = archiereus. Related to “began” in v15 & “temple” in v11. From archo (see note LXXI above) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (see note LII above)} This is a high or chief priest.
XCII “scribes” = grammateus. Related to “written” in v17. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (see note LXXXIII above). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
XCIII “kept looking” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
XCIV “kill” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

for they were afraidXCV of him, because the wholeXCVI crowd was spellboundXCVII by his teaching.XCVIII 

Notes on verse 18b

XCV “afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
XCVI “whole” = pas. Same as “everything” in v11. See note LIV above.
XCVII “was spellbound” = ekplesso. 13x in NT. From ek (out, out of) + plesso (to pound, strike, flatten; figuratively, cause a calamity). This is to strike with panic, astonish shock. It is a moment that shakes someone from their senses and leaves them dumbfounded or at a loss.
XCVIII “teaching” = didache. Related to “teaching” in v17. From didasko (see note LXXXII above). This is teaching or doctrine.

19 And when eveningXCIX came,C Jesus and his disciples wentCI out of the city.CII

Notes on verse 19

XCIX “evening” = opse. Same as “late” in v11. See note LVII above.
C “came” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
CI “went” = ekporeuomai. Related to “enter” in v2. From ek (from, from out of) + poreuomai (see note XIV above). This is to go forth, depart from, be spoken, flow out, project. This word emphasizes the result a process or passage – how it impacts the person or thing.
CII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.

20 In the morningCIII as they passed by,CIV they saw the fig tree withered awayCV to its roots.CVI 

Notes on verse 20

CIII “morning” = proi. 12x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior). This is early, at dawn, during the daybreak watch.
CIV “passed by” = paraporeuomai. Related to “enter” in v2 & “went” in v19. 5x in NT. From para (from beside, by) + poreuomai (see note XIV above). This is to pass long, journey near, go past.
CV “withered away” = xeraino. 15x in NT. From xeros (dry, arid, withered; can also refer to dry land or imply something that is shrunken). This is to dry up, wither, ripen, pine.
CVI “roots” = rhiza. 17x in NT. This is a root literally or figuratively so it would be the root of what comes from it – shoot, source, descendant. This is where the word “rhizome” comes from.

21 Then PeterCVII rememberedCVIII and said to him, “Rabbi,CIX look!CX The fig tree that you cursedCXI has withered.” 

Notes on verse 21

CVII “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
CVIII “remembered” = anamimnesko. 6x in NT. From ana (up, again, among, anew) + mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); {from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure)}. This is to remind, admonish; to follow the path of memory.
CIX “Rabbi” = Rhabbi. 15x in NT– 8x in the Gospel of John. From Hebrew rab (chief); from rabab (to be many, increase, multiply). This is a title of respect for a teacher-scholar. Literally, it means great one or honorable sir. It can also be understood as my master or my teacher.
CX “look” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CXI “cursed” = kataraomai. Related to “Mount” in v1. 6x in NT. From katara (curse, accursed; a curse as penalty); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + ara (prayer, curse, imprecation; a pray for evil); {probably from airo (see note V above)}}. This is to curse, execrate, doom.

22 Jesus answered them, “HaveCXII faithCXIII in God.CXIV 23 TrulyCXV I tell you, if you say to this mountain,CXVI ‘Be taken upCXVII and thrownCXVIII into the sea,’CXIX

Notes on verses 22-23a

CXII “have” = echo. Same as “needs” in v3. See note XXIII above.
CXIII “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
CXIV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
CXV “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
CXVI “mountain” = oros. Same as “Mount” in v1. See note V above.
CXVII “be taken up” = airo. Related to “Mount” in v1 & “cursed” in v21. See note V above.
CXVIII “thrown” = ballo. Related to “threw…on” in v7 & “drive out” in v15. See note XXXI above.
CXIX “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.

and if you do not doubtCXX in your heart,CXXI but believeCXXII that what you say will come to pass,CXXIII it will be doneCXXIV for you. 

Notes on verse 23b

CXX “doubt” = diakrino. 19x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to judge, separate, contend, investigate, thoroughly judge.
CXXI “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CXXII “believe” = pisteuo. Related to “faith” in v22. From pistis (see note CXIII above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CXXIII “come to pass” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v19. See note C above.
CXXIV “done” = eimi. Same as “was” in v11. See note LVI above.

24 So I tell you, whatever you askCXXV for in prayer,CXXVI believe that you have receivedCXXVII it, and it will be yours.

25 “Whenever you standCXXVIII praying, forgive,CXXIX if you have anything against anyone; so that your FatherCXXX in heavenCXXXI may also forgive you your trespasses.”CXXXII 26 But if you do not forgive, neither will your Father in heaven forgive your trespasses.”CXXXIII

Notes on verses 24-26

CXXV “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
CXXVI “prayer” = proseuchomai. Related to “prayer” in v17. See note LXXXVI above.
CXXVII “received” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
CXXVIII “stand” = steko. Related to “sent” in v1 & “bystanders” in v5. 11x in NT. From histemi (see note VII above). This is to stand fast or be stationary. Figuratively, it can mean to persevere.
CXXIX “forgive” = aphiemi. Same as “allowed” in v6. See note XXIX above.
CXXX “Father” = Pater. Same as “ancestor” in v10. See note XLVIII above.
CXXXI “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “Mount” in v1 & “cursed” in v21 & “be taken up” in v23. May be related to oros (see note V above) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CXXXII “trespasses” = paraptoma. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is properly, falling away after having been devout or faithful. So, this is a lapse, sin, slip, transgression, offense. It is a deviation from what is true – it could be accidental or unconscious.
CXXXIII Verse 26 is only found in some manuscripts.

27 Again they came to Jerusalem. As he was walkingCXXXIV in the temple, the chief priests, the scribes, and the eldersCXXXV came to him 28 and said, “By what authorityCXXXVI are you doing these things? Who gaveCXXXVII you this authority to do them?” 

Notes on verses 27-28

CXXXIV “walking” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
CXXXV “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
CXXXVI “authority” = exousia. Related to “was” in v11. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note LVI above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
CXXXVII “gave” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.

29 Jesus said to them, “I will askCXXXVIII you oneCXXXIX question;CXL answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I do these things. 30 Did the baptismCXLI of JohnCXLII come from heaven, or was it of humanCXLIII origin? Answer me.” 

Notes on verses 29-30

CXXXVIII “ask” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
CXXXIX “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
CXL “question” = logos. Related to “said” in v2 & “blessed is” in v9. See note XLIV above.
CXLI “baptism” = baptisma. From baptizo (to submerge, wash, or immerse; used specially for baptism); from bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is dipping or sinking. Also, the rite of baptism.
CXLII “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v6. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XXXVIII above)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
CXLIII “human” = anthropos. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XVIII above.

31 They arguedCXLIV with one another, “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ he will say, ‘Why then did you not believe him?’ 32 But shall we say, ‘Of human origin’?”—they were afraid of the crowd, for allCXLV regardedCXLVI John as trulyCXLVII a prophet.CXLVIII 33 So they answered Jesus, “We do not know.”CXLIX

And Jesus said to them, “Neither will I tell you by what authority I am doing these things.”

Notes on verses 31-33

CXLIV “argued” = dialogizomai. Related to “said” in v2 & “blessed is” in v9 & “question” in v29. 16x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + logizomai (to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense); {from logos (see note XLIV above)}. This is to consider, have a back and forth debate with an uncertain conclusion. It can be multiple confused minds reinforcing a faulty conclusion.
CXLV “all” = hapas. Related to “everything” in v11. From hama (at once, together with) + pas (see note LIV above) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
CXLVI “regarded” = echo. Same as “needs” in v3. See note XXIII above.
CXLVII “truly” = ontos. Related to “was” and “authority” in v28. 10x in NT. From eimi (see note LVI above). This is really, certainly. It refers to something that matters or that is genuine.
CXLVIII “prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CXLIX “know” = eido. Related to “look” in v21. See note CX above.

Image credit: “Geography of Israel” by Eden Davidi, 2015.

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