Mark 15

Mark 15


As soon asI it was morning,II the chief priestsIII heldIV a consultationV

Notes on verse 1a

I “as soon as” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
II “morning” = proi. 12x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior). This is early, at dawn, during the daybreak watch.
III “chief priests” = archiereus. From archomai (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
IV “held” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
V “consultation” = sumboulion. 8x in NT. From souboulos (counselor or adviser in an official capacity); {from sun (with, together with) + boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}}. This is to counsel and so could be used for a group of advisers. It could also be to plot or conspire together. Abstractly, it could refer to advice or resolutions.

with the eldersVI and scribesVII and the wholeVIII council.IX

Notes on verse 1b

VI “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
VII “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
VIII “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
IX “council” = sunedrion. From sun (with, together with) + hedra (convening, siting together, being firm and faithful); {from aphedron (seat, well-seated; figuratively, this is firm in purpose, steadfast); from hedra (a seat)}. This is Sanhedrin – literally a sitting together. It was the high court for Jews and had 71 members. This term could also mean council or meeting place and was used for the lower courts that were throughout the land and had 23 members.

They boundX Jesus,XI led him away,XII and handed him overXIII to Pilate.XIV 

Notes on verse 1c

X “bound” = deo. To tie, bind, compel, put in chains. This is to bind in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean declaring something unlawful.
XI “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XII “led…away” = apophero. 6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry off or away. It can mean carry off violently.
XIII “handed…over” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
XIV “Pilate” = Pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See

2 Pilate askedXV him, “AreXVI you the KingXVII of the Jews?”XVIII

He answered him,XIX “You say so.” 

Notes on verse 2

XV “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
XVI “are” = eimi. This is to be or exist.
XVII “King” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
XVIII “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Juadas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XIX {untranslated} = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

Then the chief priests accusedXX him of many things.XXI Pilate asked him again, “Have you no answer? SeeXXII how many charges they bring againstXXIII you.” But Jesus made no further reply, so that Pilate was amazed.XXIV

Notes on verses 3-5

XX “accused” = kategoreo. From kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR {from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}}. This is to accuse, charge, or prosecute. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.
XXI “many things” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XXII “see” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XXIII “charges…bring against” = kategoreo. Same as “accused” in v3. See note XX above.
XXIV “was amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.

Now at the festivalXXV he used to releaseXXVI aXXVII prisonerXXVIII for them, anyone for whom they asked.XXIX 

Notes on verse 6

XXV “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
XXVI “release” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
XXVII “a” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XXVIII “prisoner” = desmios. Related to “bound” in v1. 17x in NT. From desomon (a chain, bond, impediment; being in jail, a ligament); from deo (see note X above). This is a binding or one who is bound. So, it can be a prisoner or captive.
XXIX “asked” = paraiteomai. 12x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is to beg off, refuse, avoid, request.

NowXXX a man calledXXXI BarabbasXXXII was in prisonXXXIII with the rebelsXXXIV who had committedXXXV murderXXXVI during the insurrection.XXXVII 

Notes on verse 7

XXX {untranslated} = eimi. Same as “are” in v2. See note XVI above.
XXXI “called” = lego. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XIX above.
XXXII “Barabbas” = Barabbas. 11x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son literal or figurative, age); {corresponding to Hebrew ben (son literal or figurative, subject, age)} + Aramaic abba (father) {from Aramaic ab (father); corresponding to Hebrew ab (father literal or figurative – ancestor, chief, grandfather, etc.)}. This is Barabbas, meaning son of the father.
XXXIII “was in prison” = deo. Same as “bound” in v1. See note X above.
XXXIV “rebels” = sustasiastes. 1x in NT. From stasiastes (standing, position, uproar, insurrection, controversy); from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm) OR from sun (with, together with) + stasis (standing, rebel, place, insurrection); {from histemi (see above)}. This is a rebel.
XXXV “committed” = poieo. Same as “held” in v1. See note IV above.
XXXVI “murder” = phonos. 9x in NT. From pheno (to slay). This is killing, murder, or slaughter. It is one of the crimes that Barabbas and Saul are accused of.
XXXVII “insurrection” = stasis. Related to “rebels” in v7. 9x in NT. From the base of histemi (see note XXXIV above). This is standing – the act of standing, a place, an uprising, insurrection, dissension, or controversy.

So the crowd cameXXXVIII and beganXXXIX to askXL Pilate to doXLI for them according to his custom. Then he answered them, “Do you wantXLII me to release for you the King of the Jews?” 

Notes on verses 8-9

XXXVIII “came” = anabaino. Related to “King” in v2. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (see note XVII above). This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
XXXIX “began” = archomai. Related to “chief priests” in v1. See note III above.
XL “ask” = aiteo. Related to “asked” in v6. See note XXIX above.
XLI “do” = poieo. Same as “held” in v1. See note IV above.
XLII “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

10 For he realizedXLIII that it was out of jealousyXLIV that the chief priests had handed him over. 11 But the chief priests stirred upXLV the crowd to have him release Barabbas for them instead.XLVI 

12 Pilate spoke to them again, “Then what do you wishXLVII me to do with the man you call the King of the Jews?” 

13 They shoutedXLVIII back, “CrucifyXLIX him!” 

Notes on verses 10-13

XLIII “realized” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
XLIV “jealousy” = phthonos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); from phthio (perish, waste away). This is jealousy, spite, or ill-will. It can also be feeling glad when misfortune befalls another (akin to Schadenfreude).
XLV “stirred up” = anaseio. 2x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + seio (to shake, vibrate; figuratively to agitate or show fear). This is to shake up, move back and forth, or excite.
XLVI “instead” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
XLVII “wish” = thelo. Same as “want” in v9. See note XLII above.
XLVIII “shouted” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
XLIX “crucify” = stauroo. Related to “rebels” and “insurrection” in v7. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (see note XXXIV above). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.

14 Pilate asked them, “Why, what evilL has he done?”

But they shouted all the more,LI “Crucify him!” 15 So Pilate, wishingLII to satisfyLIII the crowd, released Barabbas for them; and after floggingLIV Jesus, he handed him over to be crucified.

Notes on verses 14-15

L “evil” = kakos. This is bad, evil, harm, ill. It is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm. It refers to deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character. Can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue.     
LI “all the more” = perissos. 17x in NT. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundantly, exceedingly, far more, or all the more. This is going beyond what is anticipated or past the upper limit.
LII “wishing” = boulomai. Related to “consultation” in v1. See note V above.
LIII “satisfy” = hikanos + poieo. Hikanos is from hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample. Poieo is the same as “held” in v1. See note IV above.
LIV “flogging” = phragelloo. 2x in NT. This is to whip or scourge – a whipping as a punishment given in public.

16 Then the soldiersLV ledLVI him into the courtyard of the palaceLVII (that is, the governor’s headquarters);LVIII and they called togetherLIX the whole cohort.LX 

Notes on verse 16

LV “soldiers” = stratiotes. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.
LVI “led” = apago. 16x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go). This is to lead away, take away, or bring. Figuratively, it can refer to being led astray or put to death.
LVII “courtyard of the palace” = aule. 12x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a building that has a courtyard within it – an area that has no roof, but does have walls and is open to the air. It could also imply a palace or mansion as larger buildings that would include courtyards.
LVIII “governor’s headquarters” = praitorin. 8x in NT. From Latin praetorium (headquarters, general’s tent, villa, place where the governor lives); from prator (leader, chief, president); from pareeo (to lead, go before). This is praetorium or preatorian guard. It is the place where the governor lives or the place where the praetorian guard of Rome lived. It could also mean courtroom. See
LIX “called together” = sugakaleo. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to summon or call together.
LX “cohort” = speira. 7x in NT. From Latin spira (something wound up like a coil or twist, the base of a column, a hair braid, etc.); from Greek speira (a twist or wreath); from Proto-Indo-European *sper- (to twist, turn). This is a group of soldiers or military guard. Properly, this is something wound up. Figuratively, it refers to a group of men. Thus, a tenth of a legion. Also used for Levitical janitors. This is where the word “spiral” comes from. See

17 And they clothedLXI him in a purpleLXII cloak; and after twistingLXIII some thornsLXIV into a crown,LXV they put it onLXVI him. 

Notes on verse 17

LXI “clothed” = endidusko. 2x in NT– 1x when the soldiers dressed Jesus in purple at the crucifixion in Mark 15:17 & 1x of the rich man dressed in purple in Luke 16:19. From enduo (to clothe, put on in a literal or figurative sense); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, within) + duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); {from duo (to sink)}}. This is to be clothed in or put on.
LXII “purple” = porphura. 4x in NT– 2x of the purple cloak the soldiers put on Jesus at the crucifixion, 1x of the rich man in Luke 16 & 1x of the purple goods from Babylon in Revelation 18:12. Perhaps from phuro (to mix something dry with something wet). This is purple dye, cloth, or a garment from that cloth. Its shade ranged from violet to scarlet to blue. The dye was made from a snail. The color symbolized royalty, wealth, or power.
LXIII “twisting” = pleko. 3x in NT– all in Gospel parallels of soldiers mocking Jesus. This is to twist, braid, or weave together.
LXIV “thorns” = akanthinos. 2x in NT. From akantha (thorn bush, thorn); from ake (point, edge). This is thorny or made from thorns.
LXV “crown” = stephanos. 18x in NT. From stepho (to twine, encircle). This is something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland. Properly, this refers to the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win. It symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek. This is the word used for the crown that the saints in heaven wear in, for example, Revelation 4:4.
LXVI “put…on” = peritithemi. Related to “as soon as” in v1. 8x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + tithemi (see note I above). This is to place around i.e. to clothe. Figuratively, it can mean to bestow or to present.

18 And they began salutingLXVII him, “Hail,LXVIII King of the Jews!” 19 They struckLXIX his headLXX with a reed,LXXI spat upon him, and knelt downLXXII in homageLXXIII to him. 

Notes on verses 18-19

LXVII “saluting” = aspazomai. Perhaps from a (with, together with) + a form of spao (to draw, draw out, pull). This is to welcome, salute, or greet. It can also be to embrace or acclaim.
LXVIII “hail” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
LXIX “struck” = tupto. 14x in NT. This is to strike, beat, or wound – generally with a stick or cudgel. It is hitting with repeated blows. So, it contrasts with paiso and patasso, which describe single blows by hand or weapon. Also contrast plesso (beating with a fist or hammer), rhapizo (to slap), and tugchaono (hitting accidentally). This word is hitting to punish. Figuratively, it can refer to being offended.
LXX “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.
LXXI “reed” = kalamos. 12x in NT. This is a reed, whether the plant itself or a stem that is like the reed. It can also imply a staff, pen, or measuring rod.
LXXII “knelt down” = tithemi + gonu. Tithemi is related to “as soon as” in v1 & “put…on” in v17. See note I above. Gonu is 12x in NT. This is knee.
LXXIII “homage” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.

20 After mockingLXXIV him, they strippedLXXV him of the purple cloak and put his ownLXXVI clothesLXXVII onLXXVIII him. Then they led him outLXXIX to crucify him.

Notes on verse 20

LXXIV “mocking” = empaizo. 13x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + paizo (to play like a child does – can include singing and dancing); {from pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting)}. This is to mock, ridicule, jeer.
LXXV “stripped” = ekduo. Related to “clothed” in v17. 6x in NT– 3x Jesus being stripped before crucifixion, 2x in 2 Corinthians 5:3-4 as a metaphor for death – being stripped of this earthly tent, & 1x in Parable of the Good Samaritan when the man is attacked. From ek (from, from out of) + duo (see note LXI above). This is to strip off or take off.
LXXVI “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
LXXVII “clothes” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
LXXVIII “put…on” = enduo. Related to clothed” in v17 & “striped” in v20. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + duno (see note LXI above). This is to put on as when one puts on clothes. It is the idea of sinking into one’s clothing.
LXXIX “led…out” = exago. Related to “led” in v16. 12x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + ago (see note LVI above). This is to lead out or fetch. It can sometimes mean to lead someone to their death.

21 They compelledLXXX a passer-by,LXXXI who was comingLXXXII in from the country,LXXXIII to carryLXXXIV his cross;LXXXV

Notes on verse 21a

LXXX “compelled” = aggareuo. 3x in NT– 2x of Simon the Cyrene & 1x “if anyone forces you to go one mile, go also the second mile” from Matthew 5:41. From Persian, but compare Aramaic iggerah (a letter); corresponding to Hebrew iggereth (letter); from the same as Agur (hired, gathered, received from the sages); from agar (to gather or harvest). This means to impress into service, to force. It can also mean send someone on an errand, particularly as a courier or other public service.
LXXXI “passer-by” = parago. Related to “led” in v16 & “led…out” in v20. 11x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of, alongside) + ago (see note LVI above). This is to lead near or by, to pass by, go along, be a passer-by.
LXXXII “coming” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
LXXXIII “country” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”
LXXXIV “carry” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
LXXXV “cross” = stauros. Related to “rebels” in v7 & “insurrection” in v7 & “crucify” in v13. See note XLIX above.

it was SimonLXXXVI of Cyrene,LXXXVII the fatherLXXXVIII of AlexanderLXXXIX and Rufus.XC 

Notes on verse 21b

LXXXVI “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
LXXXVII “Cyrene” = Kurenaios. 6x in NT. From Kurene (Cyrene, a Greek mythological figure; perhaps meaning sovereign queen). This is from Cyrene. See
LXXXVIII “father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
LXXXIX “Alexander” = Alexandros. 6x in NT. From alexo (to ward off) + aner (man, male, sir, husband). This is Alexander, meaning “man-defender.”
XC “Rufus” = Rhouphos. 2x in NT. From Sabellian Rufrae or Rufrium (proper names); related to Latin ruber (red, ruby). This is Rufus, meaning “red.” See

22 Then they broughtXCI JesusXCII to the placeXCIII called GolgothaXCIV (which meansXCV the place of a skull).XCVI 

Notes on verse 22

XCI “brought” = phero. Related to “led…away” in v1. See note XII above.
XCII “Jesus” = autos. Literally, “him.”
XCIII “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
XCIV “Golgotha” = Golgotha. 3x in NT. From Aramaic golgolta (skull); from Hebrew gulgolet (skull, head; a census or poll that counts people by head); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Golgotha, skull. See &
XCV “means” = eimi + methermeneuo. Literally, “is interpreted.” Eimi is the same as “are” in v2. See note XVI above. Methermeneuo 8x in NT. From meta (with, among, beyond) + hermeneuo (to interpret, translate, explain the meaning of); {perhaps from Hermes, the god of language and a proper name}. This is to explain beyond i.e. to translate or interpret.
XCVI “skull” = kranion. 4x in NT. From kara (the head) OR from the base of keras (horn or something horn-shaped; horn in a literal or figurative sense – that which prevails or a symbol of power). This is skull. It’s where we get the word “cranium” from.

23 And they offeredXCVII him wineXCVIII mixed with myrrh;XCIX but he did not takeC it. 

Notes on verse 23

XCVII “offered” = didomi. Related to “handed…over” in v1. See note XIII above.
XCVIII “wine” = oinos. Perhaps from Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is wine. It is where the word “oenophile” comes from.
XCIX “mixed with myrrh” = smurnizo. 1x in NT. From smurna (myrrh, perfume as incense; ointment for embalming or figurative for romantic desire); perhaps from muron (ointment, perfume, or anointing oil; probably olive oil mixed with spices and scents such as myrrh). This is to be similar to myrrh or to mix with myrrh. It was given to those sentenced to death to help numb their pain.
C “take” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.

24 And they crucified him, and dividedCI his clothes among them, castingCII lotsCIII to decide what each should take.CIV

Notes on verse 24

CI “divided” = diamerizo. 12x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); {from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment)}. This is to divide up, distribute, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.
CII “casting” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
CIII “lots” = kleros. 12x in NT. Perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This lot, portion, heritage. It is that share assigned to you. It could also refer to a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will.
CIV “take” = airo. Same as “carry” in v21. See note LXXXIV above.

25 It was nine o’clock in the morningCV when they crucified him. 26 CVIThe inscriptionCVII of the chargeCVIII against him read,CIX “The King of the Jews.” 

Notes on verses 25-26

CV “nine o’clock in the morning” = hora + tritos. Literally, “third hour.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from. Tritos is from treis (three). This is third.
CVI {untranslated} = eimi. Same as “are” in v2. See note XVI above.
CVII “inscription” = epigraphe. Related to “scribes” in v1. 5x in NT. From epigrapho (to write on, inscribe, read; a literal inscription or a mental one); {from epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + grapho (see note VII above)}. This is some kind of title or label like an inscription or superscription.
CVIII “charge” = aitia. Related to “asked” in v6 & “ask” in v8. From aiteo (see note XXIX above). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.
CIX “read” = epigrapho. Related to “scribes” in v1 & “inscription” in v26. 5x in NT. See note CVII above.

27 And with him they crucified twoCX bandits,CXI oneCXII on his rightCXIII and one on his left.CXIV 

Notes on verse 27

CX “two” = duo. This is two or both.
CXI “bandits” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barrabbas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.
CXII “one” = heis. Same as “a” in v6. See note XXVII above.
CXIII “right” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
CXIV “left” = euonmos. Related to “as soon as” in v1 & “realized” in v10. 9x in NT. From eu (see note I above) + onoma (name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation; thought to include something of the essence of the person and not separate from the person); {may be from ginosko (see note XLIII above)}. This is literally well-named or of a good name. It refers to the left or left side.

28 And the scriptureCXV was fulfilledCXVI that says, And he was countedCXVII among the lawless.CXVIII, CXIX

Notes on verse 28

CXV “scripture” = graphe. Related to “scribes” in v1 & “inscription” and “read” in v26. From grapho (see note VII above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
CXVI “fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
CXVII “counted” = logizomai. Related to {untranslated} in v3. From logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (see note XIX above). This is this is to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense.
CXVIII “lawless” = anomos. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}. This is literally without law. So, it could refer to someone who disregards authority or one who is not under the law (i.e. a Gentile). It can be lawless, wicked, or a transgressor.
CXIX This verse is only included in some manuscripts.

29 Those who passed byCXX deridedCXXI him, shakingCXXII their heads and saying, “Aha!CXXIII You who would destroyCXXIV the templeCXXV

Notes on verse 29a

CXX “passed by” = paraporeuomai. 5x in NT. From para (from beside, by) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, or die; transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination)}. This is to pass long, journey near, go past.
CXXI “derided” = blasphemeo. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
CXXII “shaking” = kineo. 8x in NT. This is to move, excite, or provoke. It is to stir in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “kinetic” comes from.
CXXIII “aha” = oua. 1x in NT. This is an exclamation of wonder or surprise like ah or ha. It can have a derisive sense to it.
CXXIV “destroy” = kataluo. Related to “release” in v6. 17x in NT.  From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (see note XXVI above). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
CXXV “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.

and buildCXXVI it in threeCXXVII days,CXXVIII 30 saveCXXIX yourself, and come downCXXX from the cross!” 

Notes on verses 29b-30

CXXVI “build” = oikodomeo. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
CXXVII “three” = treis. Related to “nine” in v25. See note CV above.
CXXVIII “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CXXIX “save” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
CXXX “come down” = katabaino. Related to “King” in v2 & “came” in v8. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note XVII above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

31 In the same way the chief priests, along with the scribes, were also mocking him among themselves and saying, “He saved others;CXXXI he cannotCXXXII save himself. 32 Let the Messiah,CXXXIII the King of Israel,CXXXIV come down from the cross now,

Notes on verses 31-32a

CXXXI “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
CXXXII “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Literally, “is not able.” Dunamai is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
CXXXIII “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CXXXIV “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

so that we may seeCXXXV and believe.”CXXXVI Those who were crucifiedCXXXVII with him also tauntedCXXXVIII him.

Notes on verse 32b

CXXXV “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
CXXXVI “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CXXXVII “crucified” = sustauro. Related to “rebels” in v7 & “insurrection” in v7 & “crucify” in v13 & “cross” in v21. 5x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + stauroo (see note XLIX above). This is to crucify together literally or figuratively.
CXXXVIII “taunted” = oneidizo. Related to “realized” in v10 & “left” in v27. 9x in NT. From oneidos (a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation, a taunt or reproach); perhaps from the base of onoma (see note CXIV above). This is to disgrace, insult, mock, blame, or curse someone so as to create shame. This is when a person or thing is considered guilty and deserving punishment. So, it can be denounce, revile, defame, or chide.

33 When it wasCXXXIX noon,CXL darknessCXLI cameCXLII over the whole landCXLIII until three in the afternoon.CXLIV 

Notes on verse 33

CXXXIX “was” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
CXL “noon” = hora + hektos. Literally, “sixth hour.” Hora is the same as “o’clock” in v25. See note CV above. Hektos is 14x in NT. From hex (six). This is sixth.
CXLI “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
CXLII “came” = ginomai. Same as “was” in v33. See note CXXXIX above.
CXLIII “land” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
CXLIV “three in the afternoon” = hora + ennatos. Literally, “ninth hour.” Hora is the same as “o’clock” in v25. See note CV above. Ennatos is related to “bound” in v1 & “prisoner” in v6. 10x in NT. From enatos (needy, lacking, ninth); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + deo (see note X above)} OR from ennea (nine). This is ninth.

34 At three o’clock Jesus cried outCXLV with a loudCXLVI voice,CXLVII “Eloi,CXLVIII Eloi, lemaCXLIX sabachthani?”CL which means, “My God,CLI my God, why have you forsakenCLII me?” 

Notes on verse 34

CXLV “cried out” = boao. 12x in NT. From boe (a cry or shout). This is cry out, make a distress call, ask for desperately need assistance.
CXLVI “loud” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CXLVII “voice” = phone. Related to “derided” in v29. Probably from phemi (see note CXXI above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
CXLVIII “Eloi” = Eloi. Related to “Israel” in v32. 2x in NT. From Aramaic elah (God, a god); akin to Hebrew eloah (God, Mighty One, power); from el (see note CXXXIV above). This is Eloi – “my God.”
CXLIX “lema” = lama. 2x in NT. From Hebrew mah (what, how, why, whatever). This is “why.”
CL “sabachthani” = sabachthani. 2x in NT. From Aramaic shebaq (to leave, leave alone, quite); corresponding to Hebrew azab (loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute). This is forsake or leave.
CLI “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
CLII “forsaken” = egkataleipo. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kataleipo (to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing)}. This is left behind, left as a remainder, desert, forsake. Properly, it means to leave someone or something wanting or lacking – so, to forsake or cause someone to be helpless in a serious scenario.

35 When some of the bystandersCLIII heardCLIV it, they said, “Listen,CLV he is callingCLVI for Elijah.”CLVII 

Notes on verse 35

CLIII “bystanders” = paristemi. Literally, “those standing by.” Related to “rebels” in v7 & “insurrection” in v7 & “crucify” in v13 & “cross” in v21 & “crucified” in v32. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note XXXIV above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
CLIV “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CLV “listen” = idou. Same as “see” in v4. See note XXII above.
CLVI “calling” = phoneo. Related to “derided” in v29 & “voice” in v34. From phone (see note CXLVII above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
CLVII “Elijah” = Elias. Related to “Jesus” in v1 & “Israel” in v32 & “Eloi” in v34. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from el (see note CXXXIV above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note XI above)}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”

36 And someone ran,CLVIII filledCLIX a spongeCLX with sour wine,CLXI

Notes on verse 36a

CLVIII “ran” = trecho. 20x in NT. To run, make progress, rush. This is running like an athlete in a race. Figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way.
CLIX “filled” = gemizo. 8x in NT. From gemo (to be full, swell, at capacity, actions taken to fulfill a goal). This is to fill up or load, be swamped as a boat with water.
CLX “sponge” = spoggos. 3x in NT– all during the crucifixion. Perhaps related to spoggos (sponge or tonsil) –  a “Mediterranean-Pontic Pre-Greek substrate loanword.” This is sponge. See
CLXI “sour wine” = oxos. Related to “thorns” in v17. 6x in NT– all of the crucifixion. From oxus (sharp, eager, quick); probably related to akmen (even now, still, yet); from the same as akmazo (become ripe, reach maturity); from akme (point or edge); related to ake (see note LXIV above). This is sour wine or vinegar. As the lowest grade of Roman wine, it was a common drink for Roman soldiers.

put it on a stick,CLXII and gave it to him to drink,CLXIII saying, “Wait,CLXIV let us seeCLXV whether Elijah will come to take him down.”CLXVI 

Notes on verse 36b

CLXII “stick” = kalamos. Same as “reed” in v19. See note LXXI above.
CLXIII “gave it…to drink” = potizo. 15x in NT. From potos (drink or for drinking) OR from pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is to give to drink, water, furnish, irrigate, or feed.
CLXIV “wait” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
CLXV “see” = horao. Same as “see” in v32. See note CXXXV above.
CLXVI “take…down” = kathaireo. 9x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer); {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to take down, destroy, yank down, demolish in a literal or figurative sense.

37 Then Jesus gaveCLXVII a loud cryCLXVIII and breathed his last.CLXIX 38 And the curtainCLXX of the temple was tornCLXXI in two, from topCLXXII to bottom. 

Notes on verses 37-38

CLXVII “gave” = aphiemi. Same as “wait” in v36. See note CLXIV above.
CLXVIII “cry” = phone. Same as “voice” in v34. See note CXLVII above.
CLXIX “breathed his last” = ekpneo. 3x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is to breath out as in a last breath – to expire.
CLXX “curtain” = katapetasma. 6x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + petannumi (to spread out) {from petomai (to fly)}. This is the inner veil in the Temple. Literally, it is what spreads down i.e. hangs down. The curtain hung between the Holy of Holies, the innermost part of the Temple, from the rest of it.
CLXXI “torn” = schizo. 11x in NT. This is to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).
CLXXII “top” = anothen. 13x in NT– this is the word used in John 3:3 in the being born “from above”/“again” conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus.. From ano (up, above, up to the top, things above, heaven); from ana (up, upwards, again, back, among, anew). This is from above, from the top, again, beginning, from the source. It implies anew.

39 Now when the centurion,CLXXIII who stoodCLXXIV facing him, sawCLXXV that in this way he breathed his last, he said, “TrulyCLXXVI this manCLXXVII was God’s Son!”CLXXVIII

Notes on verse 39

CLXXIII “centurion” = kenturion. 3x in NT– all in Mark (a different word for “centurion” is used elsewhere). From Latin centurio (to separate by hundreds, make military companies); from centuria (a unit of a hundred, a century; can be an infantry unit or other group of a hundred); from centum (a hundred). This is a centurion in the Roman army who has charge over a hundred infantry. See
CLXXIV “stood” = paristemi. Same as “bystanders” in v35. See note CLIII above.
CLXXV “saw” = horao. Same as “see” in v32. See note CXXXV above.
CLXXVI “truly” = alethos. 18x in NT. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
CLXXVII “man” = anthropos. Related to “Alexander” in v21 & “see” in v32. Probably from aner (see note LXXXIX above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note CXXXV above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CLXXVIII “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.

40 There were also womenCLXXIX looking onCLXXX from a distance; among them were MaryCLXXXI Magdalene,CLXXXII

Notes on verse 40a

CLXXIX “women” = gune. Related to “was” in v33. Perhaps from ginomai (see note CXXXIX above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CLXXX “looking on” = theoreo. Related to “was amazed” in v5. From theaomai (see note XXIV above). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
CLXXXI “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
CLXXXII “Magdalene” = Magdalene. 12x in NT. From Magdala (Magadan, a place near the Sea of Galilee); perhaps from Aramaic migdal, see also Hebrew migdal (tower); from gadal (to grow, grow up, be great). This is from Magdala.

and Mary the mother of JamesCLXXXIII the youngerCLXXXIV and of Joses,CLXXXV and Salome.CLXXXVI 

Notes on verse 40b

CLXXXIII “James” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
CLXXXIV “younger” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
CLXXXV “Joses” = Ioses. 3x in NT. Perhaps from Ioseph (Joseph, “he increases”); from Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joses, meaning “he increases.”
CLXXXVI “Salome” = Salome. 2x in NT– both in Mark. From Hebrew Shalem (Salem or Shalem, meaning “peaceful”); from shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Salome or Shelomah, meaning “peaceful.”

41 These used to followCLXXXVII him and provided forCLXXXVIII him when he was in Galilee;CLXXXIX and there were many other women who had come up withCXC him to Jerusalem.CXCI

Notes on verse 41

CLXXXVII “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
CLXXXVIII “provided for” = diakoneo. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); {perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute); {related to dio (put to flight)}}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.
CLXXXIX “Galilee” = Galilaia. Related to “Golgotha” in v22. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (see note XCIV above). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
CXC “come up with” = sunanabaino. Related to “King” in v2 & “came” in v8 & “come down” in v30. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + anabaino (to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter); {from ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (see note XVII above)}. This is to come up with, ascend together.
CXCI “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. Related to “Salome” in v40. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (see note CLXXXVI above)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

42 When eveningCXCII had come,CXCIII and since it was the day of Preparation,CXCIV that is, the day before the sabbath,CXCV 

Notes on verse 42

CXCII “evening” = opsios. 15x in NT. From opse (after, late, in the end, in the evening); from opiso (back, behind, after); from the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back). This is afternoon, evening, nightfall, or late.
CXCIII “come” = ginomai. Same as “was” in v33. See note CXXXIX above.
CXCIV “Preparation” = parsskeue. 6x in NT. From paraskeuazo (to prepare, get ready); {from para (from beside, by) + skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense); {from skeuazo (to prepare using a tool)}}. This is preparation or readiness. It can be used specifically to refer to preparing for the Sabbath or a festival.
CXCV “day before the sabbath” = prosabbaton. 1x in NT. From pro (before, earlier, above) + sabbaton (the sabbath; also shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths); {from Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate)}. This is the day prior to the sabbath.

43 CXCVIJosephCXCVII of Arimathea,CXCVIII a respectedCXCIX member of the council,CC

Notes on verse 43a

CXCVI {untranslated} = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v21. See note LXXXII above.
CXCVII “Joseph” = Ioseph. Related to “Joses” in v40. See note CLXXXV above.
CXCVIII “Arimathea” = Harimathaia. 4x in NT. From Hebrew compare Ramah (Ramah, height); from rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively). This is Arimathea, a city by Jerusalem.
CXCIX “respected” = euschemon. Related to “as soon as” in v1 & “left” in v27. 5x in NT. From eu (see note I above) + schema (figure, appearance, form – outer shape; figuratively, can be external condition); {from echo (to have, hold, possess)}. This is presentable, seemly, prominent, noble, appropriate, desirable, well-formed.
CC “member of the council” = bouleutes. Related to “consultation” in v1 & “wishing” in v15. 2x in NT. From bouleuo (to plan, consider, deliberate, advise); from boule (see note V above). This is a member of a council, adviser. In the New Testament, it refers to people on the Sanhedrin.

who was also himself waiting expectantly forCCI the kingdomCCII of God, wentCCIII boldlyCCIV to Pilate and asked forCCV the bodyCCVI of Jesus. 

Notes on verse 43b

CCI “waiting expectantly for” = prosdechomai. Related to “right” in v27. 14x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + dechomai (see note CXIII above). This is to receive, welcome, expect, accept. It is reception with a warm, personal welcome or active waiting. It can also mean endurance or patience.
CCII “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “King” in v2 & “came” in v8 & “come down” in v30 & “come up with” in v41. From basileus (see note XVII above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CCIII “went” = eiserchomai. Related to “coming” in v21. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note LXXXII above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CCIV “boldly” = tolmao. 16x in NT. From tolma (boldness); perhaps from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax); from tello (to start out with a definite goal in mind). This is to show courage to take a risk, to venture decisively, to put it on the line for something that matters.
CCV “asked for” = aiteo. Same as “ask” in v8. See note XL above.
CCVI “body” = soma. Related to “save” in v30. Perhaps from sozo (see note CXXIX above). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.

44 Then Pilate wonderedCCVII if he were already dead;CCVIII and summoningCCIX the centurion, he askedCCX him whether he had been deadCCXI for some time.CCXII 

Notes on verse 44

CCVII “wondered” = thaumazo. Same as “was amazed” in v5. See note XXIV above.
CCVIII “were…dead” = thnesko. 9x in NT. This is to die or be dead in a spiritual or literal sense.
CCIX “summoning” = proskaleo. Related to “called together” in v16. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (see note LIX above). This is to call to oneself, summon.
CCX “asked” = eperotao. Same as “asked” in v2. See note XV above.
CCXI “been dead” = apothnesko. Related to “were…dead” in v44. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (see note CCVIII above). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
CCXII “for some time” = palai. 7x in NT. Perhaps from palin (back, again, further); probably from the same as pale (wrestling, struggle, conflict); from pallo (to sway or vibrate). This is long ago, former, ancient, in the past.

45 When he learnedCCXIII from the centurion that he was dead, he grantedCCXIV the bodyCCXV to Joseph. 46 Then Joseph boughtCCXVI a linen cloth,CCXVII and taking down the body, wrappedCCXVIII it in the linen cloth,

Notes on verses 45-46a

CCXIII “learned” = ginosko. Same as “realized” in v10. See note XLIII above.
CCXIV “granted” = doreomai. Related to “handed…over” in v1 & “offered” in v23. 3x in NT. From doron (gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily); from didomi (see note XIII above). This is to give, grant, donate – a free gift.
CCXV “body” = ptoma. Related to “curtain” in v38. 7x in NT. From pipto (to fall literally or figuratively); probably related to petomai (see note CLXX above). This is a fall, misfortune, ruin, corpse.
CCXVI “bought” = agorazo. Related to “accused” in v3. From agora (see note XX above). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.
CCXVII “linen cloth” = sindon. 6x in NT. This is byssos, a fine linen cloth, garment, or sheet.
CCXVIII “wrapped” = eneileo. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + eileo (to wind) OR the base of heilisso (to roll or wrap up); {from helisso (to roll up, coil, wrap)}. This is to wind up, roll in.

and laidCCXIX it in a tombCCXX that had been hewnCCXXI out of the rock.CCXXII He then rolledCCXXIII a stoneCCXXIV against the doorCCXXV of the tomb. 47 Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses sawCCXXVI where the body was laid.

Notes on verses 46b-47

CCXIX “laid” = tithemi. Same as “knelt down” in v19. See note LXXII above.
CCXX “tomb” = mnemeion. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
CCXXI “hewn” = latomeo. 2x in NT. From laas (a stone) + temno (to cut with a repeated blows). This is to hew or cut as when one quarries stones.
CCXXII “rock” = petra. 15x in NT. This is large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff. It can also be cave or stony ground.
CCXXIII “rolled” = proskulio. 2x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kulioo (to roll, wallow); {from kulindo (to roll, roll along); from kuma (wave, billow, curve, bend); from kuo (to swell as one pregnant)}. This is to roll towards or against.
CCXXIV “stone” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXXV “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
CCXXVI “saw” = theoreo. Same as “looking on” in v40. See note CLXXX above.

Image credit: “Jesus is Buried in a Tomb” by James Tissot.

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