Mark 16:1-8

Mark 16:1-8
Easter B19


When the sabbathA was over,B MaryC Magdalene,D

Notes on verse 1a

A “sabbath” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
B “was over” = diaginomai. 3x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is to go through, often referring to the passage of time. It can also mean to intervene or elapse.
C “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
D “Magdalene” = Magdalene. 12x in NT. From Magdala (Magadan, a place near the Sea of Galilee); perhaps from Aramaic migdal, see also Hebrew migdal (tower); from gadal (to grow, grow up, be great). This is from Magdala.

and Mary the mother of James,E and SalomeF boughtG spices,H so that they might go and anointI him. 

Notes on verse 1b

E “James” = Iabkobos. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
F “Salome” = Salome. 2x in NT. From Hebrew Shalem (Salem or Shalem, meaning “peaceful”); from shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Salome or Shelomah, meaning “peaceful.”
G “bought” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.
H “spices” = aroma. 4x in NT – all used of bringing spices for Jesus’ body. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is a sweet spice, seasoning, or perfume. It is where the word “aroma” comes from.
I “anoint” = aleipho. 9x in NT. From a (with) + liparos (oil, fatty; something luxurious); {from lipos (fat, grease)}. This is to anoint whether for medical reasons, as part of hospitality, for a dead body, for a celebration or festival, or to show respect.

And very earlyJ on the first day of the week,K when the sunL had risen,M they went to the tomb.N 

Notes on verse 2

J “early” = proi. 12x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior). This is early, at dawn, during the daybreak watch.
K “week” = sabbaton. Same as “sabbath” in v1. See note A above.
L “sun” = helios. This is sun, which would imply light in general or the east.
M “risen” = anatello. 9x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, anew) + tello (to cause to arise); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax)}. This is rise, shine, or dawn. It is most often used of the sun. Figuratively, it can mean achieving a goal or reaching consummation after completing the needed steps.
N “tomb” = mnemeion. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.

They had been saying to one another, “Who will roll away the stone for us from the entranceO to the tomb?” When they looked up,P they sawQ that the stone, which was veryR large, had already been rolled back. 

Notes on verses 3-4

O “entrance” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
P “looked up” = anablepo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look up or regain sight.
Q “saw” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
R “very” = sphodra. 11x in NT. From sphodros (exceeding, very much, all out, violent). This is exceedingly, greatly, deeply. This is going all out, with total effort, done to the fullest extent.

As they entered the tomb, they sawS a young man,T dressedU in a whiteV robe,W

Notes on verse 5a

S “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
T “young man” = neaniskos. 11x in NT. From neanias (youth, young man; someone in their prime to the age of 40); from neos (young, new, youth, person). This is a youth or young man in their prime up to 40.
U “dressed” = periballo. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to thrown around, clothe, array, put on.
V “white” = leukos. Related to luke (light). This is bright, white, or brilliant.
W “robe” = stole. 9x in NT –the scribes who want to be greeted with respect in marketplaces (Mk 12:13; Lk 20:46), the angel presenting as a young man at the resurrection (Mk 16:5), the robe brought for the prodigal son (Lk 15:22), and the attire of the martyrs and saints in heaven in Revelation 6, 7, and 22. From stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}. This is clothing, in particular a long, flowing robe associated with elites.

sittingX on the right side;Y and they were alarmed.Z 

Notes on verse 5b

X “sitting” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
Y “right side” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
Z “alarmed” = ekthambeo. 4x in NT– 1x when Jesus healed a boy with a spirit and the crowd was overcome with awe in Mark 9:15, 1x when Jesus was distressed at Gethsemane in Mark 14:33 & 2x when Mary Magdalene, Mary, and Salome were alarmed at seeing the angel at the empty tomb and the angel says, “do not be alarmed” in Mark 16:5-6. From ekthambos (amazed, filled with wonder that affects the viewer greatly); {from ek (from, from out of) + thambos (amazement, wonder, being stunned or dumbfounded because something unusual happened; it can be positive or negative); {akin to tapho (dumbfounded)}}. This is to amaze, be full of awe, to be distressed.

But he said to them, “Do not be alarmed; you are looking forAA JesusBB of Nazareth,CC who was crucified.DD

Notes on verse 6a

AA “looking for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
BB “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CC “Nazareth” = Nazarenos. 6x in NT. Probably from Nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
DD “crucified” = stauroo. Related to “robe” in v5. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (see note W above). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.

He has been raised;EE he is not here. Look,FF there is the placeGG they laidHH him. 

Notes on verse 6b

EE “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
FF “look” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
GG “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
HH “laid” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.

But go,II tell his disciplesJJ and PeterKK that he is going aheadLL of you to Galilee;MM there you will see him, just as he told you.” 

Notes on verse 7

II “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
JJ “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
KK “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
LL “going ahead” = proago. Related to “go” in v7. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note II above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
MM “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.

So they went out and fledNN from the tomb, for terrorOO and amazementPP had seizedQQ them; and they said nothing to anyone, for they were afraid.RR

Notes on verse 8

NN “fled” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.
OO “terror” = tromos. 5x in NT. From tremo (shaking, particularly from fear or dread); from treo (to dread or terrify). This is trembling, shaking, or quaking from fear. This is the root of the term “tremolo.”
PP “amazement” = ekstasis. Related to “robe” in v5 & “crucified” in v6. 7x in NT. From existemi (o displace or take something or someone from standing; figuratively, to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself; astonished, amazed, or mad); {from ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note W above)}. This is bewilderment, amazement, distraction, shock, a trance, rapture. It is the root of the word “ecstasy.”
QQ “seized” = echo. Literally to have or possess.
RR “were afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.

Image credit: “Jesus is Alive!” by LUMO Project.

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