Mark 16:9-15, 19-20

Mark 16:9-15, 19-20
Easter Friday – A Women’s Lectionary


Now after he roseA earlyB on the firstC day of the week,D

Notes on verse 9a

A “rose” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
B “early” = proi. 12x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior). This is early, at dawn, during the daybreak watch.
C “first” = protos. Related to “early” in v9. From pro (see note B above). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
D “week” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.

he appearedE firstF to MaryG Magdalene,H

Notes on verse 9b

E “appeared” = phaino. This is to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear. This is show in a literal or figurative sense.
F “first” = proton. Related to “early” and “first” inv9. From protos (see note C above). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
G “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
H “Magdalene” = Magdalene. 12x in NT. From Magdala (Magadan, a place near the Sea of Galilee); perhaps from Aramaic migdal, see also Hebrew migdal (tower); from gadal (to grow, grow up, be great). This is from Magdala.

from whom he had cast outI sevenJ demons.K 

Notes on verse 9c

I “cast out” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
J “seven” = hepta. This is seven or seventh. Figuratively, seven is the number of completeness or perfection.
K “demons” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.

10 She went outL and toldM those who had been with him, while they wereN mourningO and weeping.P 

Notes on verse 10

L “went out” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
M “told” = apaggello. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
N “were” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
O “mourning” = pentheo. 10x in NT. From penthos (mourning, sorrow, sadness, grief); perhaps from pascho (to be acted on for good or ill; often used for negative treatment; properly, feeling strong emotions – especially suffering; can also be the ability to feel suffering). This is used for grieving a death, but also figuratively for loss of hope or end of a relationship. This is embodied grief that is readily apparent. This is grief as a feeling or the act of grieving.
P “weeping” = klaio. This is to weep, lament, or sob. It is weeping aloud.

11 But when they heardQ that he was aliveR and had been seenS by her, they would not believeT it.

Notes on verse 11

Q “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
R “was alive” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
S “seen” = theaomai. From thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit like a spectator. This is the root of the word “theatre.”
T “would not believe” = apisteo. 8x in NT. From apistos (unbelieving, incredulous, faithless; someone who rejects faith); {from a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); {from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust)}}. This is to intentionally disbelieve, prove false. It can be one who has never believed or a believer who goes astray.

12 After this he appearedU in anotherV formW, X

Notes on verse 12a

U “appeared” = phaneroo. Related to “appeared” in v9. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (see note E above). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
V “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
W “form” = morphe. 3x in NT. Perhaps from the base of meros (a part or share, portion); from meiromai (to get one’s allotment or portion}. This is outward appearance or shape. It is a form that shows inner essence – outer and inner essence in harmony.
X {untranslated} = poreuomai. Same as “went out” in v10. See note L above.

to twoY of them, as they were walkingZ into the country.AA 

Notes on verse 12b

Y “two” = duo. This is two or both.
Z “walking” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
AA “country” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”

13 And they went backBB and told the rest,CC but they did not believeDD them.

Notes on verse 13

BB “went back” = aperchomai. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (to come or go). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
CC “rest” = loipos. From leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.
DD “believe” = pisteuo. Related to “would not believe” in v11. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (see note T above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

14 LaterEE he appearedFF to the elevenGG themselves as they were sittingHH at the table;

Notes on verse 14a

EE “later” = husteron. 11x in NT. From husteros (last, later); from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to). This is afterwards, eventually, lastly.
FF “appeared” = phaneroo. Same as “appeared” in v12. See note U above.
GG “eleven” = hendeka. 6x in NT – all referring to the apostles minus Judas. From heis (one) + deka (ten). This is eleven.
HH “sitting” = anakeimai. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.

and he upbraidedII them for their lack of faithJJ and stubbornness,KK because they had not believed those who saw him after he had risen.LL, MM 

Notes on verse 14b

II “upbraided” = oneidizo. 9x in NT. From oneidos (a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation, a taunt or reproach); perhaps from the base of onoma (name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation); perhaps from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is to disgrace, insult, mock, blame, or curse someone so as to create shame. This is when a person or thing is considered guilty and deserving punishment. So, it can be denounce, revile, defame, or chide.
JJ “lack of faith” = apistia. Related to “would not believe” in v11 & “believe” in v13. 11x in NT. From apistos (unbelieving, incredulous, faithless; someone who rejects faith); {from a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); {from peitho (see note T above)}}. This is unfaithfulness, distrust, disbelief, disobedience.
KK “stubbornness” = sklerokardia. 3x in NT. From skleros (hard because dried, rough, difficult, fierce, harsh; stubborn or unyielding – unyieldingly hard); {from skello (to dry) or from skelos (leg); from skello (to parch)} + kardia (the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings; the center of something; only used figuratively in the Bible). This is hard-hearted i.e. obstinate, rebellious. It is hard in the sense of dried out.
LL “risen” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
MM Some manuscripts add “from the dead” = ek + nekros. Nekros is perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

15 And he said to them, “GoNN into allOO the worldPP

Notes on verse 15a

NN “go” = poreuomai. Same as “went out” in v10. See note L above.
OO “all” = hapas.  From hama (at once, together with) + pas (all, every, every kind of) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
PP “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

and proclaimQQ the good newsRR to the wholeSS creation.TT 

Notes on verse 15b

QQ “proclaim” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
RR “good news” = euaggelion. Related to “told” in v10. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (see note M above). This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
SS “whole” = pas. Related to “all” in v15.See note OO above.
TT “creation” = ktisis. 19x in NT. From ktizo (to build, create, form, shape; God’s acts of creation); probably akin to ktaomai (to get, purchase, possess). This is creation, creature, or ordinance. It is also used for when a city is founded and creation as origin.

19 SoUU then the LordVV Jesus,WW after he had spoken to them,

Notes on verse 19a

UU “so” = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
VV “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
WW “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

was taken upXX into heavenYY and sat downZZ at the right handAAA of God.BBB 

Notes on verse 19b

XX “taken up” = analambano. 13x in NT. From ana (up, again, anew) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take up, lead away, raise. It is often used of the ascension.
YY “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
ZZ “sat down” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
AAA “right hand” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
BBB “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

20 And they went outCCC and proclaimed the good news everywhere,DDD while the Lord worked withEEE them

Notes on verse 20a

CCC “went out” = exerchomai. Related to “went back” in v13. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note BB above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
DDD “everywhere” = pantachou. Related to “all” and “whole” in v15. 8x in NT. Perhaps from pas (see note OO above). This is everywhere or universally.
EEE “worked with” = sunergeo. 5x in NT. From sunergos (co-worker, associate, helper, co-laborer or one’s companion during labor); {from sun (with, together with) + ergon (work, task, deed, labor, effort) {from ergo (to work, accomplish, do)}}. This is to work together, help in labor, be a co-worker, to cooperate. This root is where “synergy” comes from.

and confirmedFFF the messageGGG by the signsHHH that accompaniedIII it.

Notes on verse 20b

FFF “confirmed” = bebaioo. 8x in NT. From bebaios (properly, ground that is solid enough to walk over; firm, unshakable; figuratively, guaranteed, valid, sure, steadfast, enduring; literally and figuratively “solid footing”); from the same as basis (a step; hence, a foot, pace, or base); from baino (to walk or go). This is secure, guantee, reliable, firm, dependable. It is something that you can put your trust in.
GGG “message” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
HHH “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
III “accompanied” = epakoloutheo. 4x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + akoloutheo (to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does); {from a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way)}. This is to follow along, pursue, imitate, devote to, accompany.

Image credit: “The Lord Ascends into Heaven” – “Fresco in the sacristy of the Basilica of the Immaculate Conception in Washington DC.” Photo by Lawrence OP, 2014.

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