Mark 2

Mark 2


When he returnedI to CapernaumII after some days,III it was reportedIV that he wasV at home.VI 

Notes on verse 1

I “returned” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
II “Capernaum” = Kapernaoum. 16x in NT. From Hebrew kaphar (village with walls); {from the same as kephir (a young lion, village); from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel)} + Nachum (Nahum, “comfortable”); {from nacham (a strong breath or sigh; to be sorry, to pity, console, comfort, or repent; also to comfort oneself with thoughts of vengeance)}. This is Capernaum, meaning “Nahum’s village.”
III “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
IV “reported” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
V “was” = eimi. This is to be or exist.
VI “home” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.

2 So manyVII gathered aroundVIII that there was no longer roomIX for them, not even in front of the door;X and he was speaking the wordXI to them. 

Notes on verse 2

VII “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
VIII “gathered around” = sunago. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
IX “was…room” = choreo. 10x in NT. From choros (a particular space or place); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is to leave in order to make room or space. It can also be to advance, receive,k accept, or make progress. Figuratively, it can also refer to being open-hearted.
X “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
XI “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

Then some people came,XII bringingXIII to him a paralyzed man,XIV carriedXV by fourXVI of them. 

Notes on verse 3

XII “came” = erchomai. Related to “Returned” in v1. See note I above.
XIII “bringing” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
XIV “paralyzed man” = paralutikos. 10x in NT. From paraluo (to release on the side, weaken, disable, relax, paralyze); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld)}. This is someone who is paralyzed. This is where the word “paralyze” comes from.
XV “carried” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
XVI “four” = tessares. This is four – used figuratively for total coverage.

And when they couldXVII not bringXVIII him to Jesus because of the crowd, they removedXIX the roofXX, XXI above him;

Notes on verse 4a

XVII “could” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
XVIII “bring” = prosphero. Related to “bringing” in v3. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (see note XIII above). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
XIX “removed” = apostegazo. 1x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + stege (a roof of a house that is flat); {from stego (cover tightly, conceal, endure patiently, to put something under a roof, forbearing) or tegos (thatch of a building)} or stegazo (to roof or cover). This is to remove a roof.
XX “roof” = stege. Related to “removed” in v4. 3x in NT. Se note XIX above.
XXI {untranslated} = eimi. Same as “was” inv1. See note V above.

and after having dug throughXXII it, they let downXXIII the matXXIV on which the paralytic lay.XXV 

Notes on verse 4b

XXII “dug through” = exorusso. 2x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + orusso ((to dig, burrow, or excavate). This is to dig out or extract. It can be to dig through a roof or to gouge an eye.
XXIII “let down” = chalao. 7x in NT. Perhaps from the base of chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is let down, slacken, loosen.
XXIV “mat” = krabattos. 11x in NT. From Ancient Macedonian grabos (oak or beech). This is a bed or pallet. It is a place for poor people, perhaps made of a quilt or a mat. Always used to refer to sick people on mats – 9x in the Gospels and 2x in the book of Acts.
XXV “lay” = katakeimai. 12x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + keimai (to lie, recline, be placed, lie outstretched, be appointed). This is to lie down, whether for a meal or as one sick in bed.

When JesusXXVI sawXXVII their faith,XXVIII

Notes on verse 5a

XXVI “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXVII “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XXVIII “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

he saidXXIX to the paralytic, “Son,XXX your sinsXXXI are forgiven.”XXXII 

Notes on verse 5b

XXIX “said” = lego. Related to “word” in v2. See note XI above.
XXX “son” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
XXXI “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
XXXII “forgiven” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.

6 Now some of the scribesXXXIII were sittingXXXIV there, questioningXXXV in their hearts,XXXVI 

Notes on verse 6

XXXIII “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
XXXIV “sitting” = kathemai. Related to “days” in v1. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (see note III above). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
XXXV “questioning” = dialogizomai. Related to “word” in v2 & “said” in v5. 16x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + logizmai (to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense); {from logos (see note XI above)}. This is to consider, have a back and forth debate with an uncertain conclusion. It can be multiple confused minds reinforcing a faulty conclusion.
XXXVI “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

“Why does this fellow speak in this way? It is blasphemy!XXXVII Who can forgive sins but GodXXXVIII alone?”XXXIX 

Notes on verse 7

XXXVII “is blasphemy” = blasphemeo. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
XXXVIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XXXIX “alone” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.

At onceXL Jesus perceivedXLI in his spiritXLII that they were discussing these questionsXLIII among themselves; and he said to them, “Why do you raise such questionsXLIV in your hearts? 

Notes on verse 8

XL “at once” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
XLI “perceived” = epiginosko. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.
XLII “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
XLIII “discussing…questions” = dialogizomai. Same as “questioning” in v6. See note XXXV above.
XLIV “raise…questions” = dialogizomai. Same as “questioning” in v6. See note XXXV above.

Which is easier,XLV to say to the paralytic, ‘Your sins are forgiven,’ or to say, ‘Stand upXLVI and takeXLVII your mat and walk’?XLVIII 

Notes on verse 9

XLV “easier” = eukopoteros. Related to “at once” in v8. 7x in NT. From eukopos (easy); {from eu (see note XL above) + kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); {from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn)}}. This is easier, better for labor.
XLVI “stand up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XLVII “take” = airo. Same as “carried” in v3. See note XV above.
XLVIII “walk” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.

10 But so that you may knowXLIX that the SonL of ManLI

Notes on verse 10a

XLIX “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
L “Son” = Huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
LI “Man” = anthropos. Related to “saw” in v5. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note XVII above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

hasLII authorityLIII on earthLIV to forgive sins”—he said to the paralytic— 11 “I say to you, stand up, take your mat and goLV to your home.” 

Notes on verses 10b-11

LII “has” = echo. This is to have, hold, or possess.
LIII “authority” = exousia. Related to “was” in v1. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note V above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
LIV “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
LV “go” = hupago. Related to “gathered around” in v2. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note VIII above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.

12 And he stood up, and immediatelyLVI took the mat and went outLVII before allLVIII of them; so that they were all amazedLIX and glorifiedLX God, saying, “We have never seen anything like this!”

Notes on verse 12

LVI “immediately” = eutheos. Same as “at once” in v8. See note XL above.
LVII “went out” = exerchomai. Related to “returned” in v1 & “came” in v3. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
LVII “all” = pas. This is all or every.
LIX “were…amazed” = existemi. 17x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is to displace or take something or someone from standing. Figuratively, it is to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself. By extension, it is astonished, amazed, or mad.
LX “glorified” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.

13 Jesus went out again beside the sea;LXI the wholeLXII crowd gatheredLXIII around him, and he taughtLXIV them. 

Notes on verse 13

LXI “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.
LXII “whole” = pas. Same as “all” in v12. See note LVIII above.
LXIII “gathered” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v3. See note XII above.
LXIV “taught” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.

14 As he was walking along,LXV he saw LeviLXVI son of AlphaeusLXVII sitting at the tax booth,LXVIII and he said to him, “FollowLXIX me.” And he got upLXX and followed him.

Notes on verse 14

LXV “walking along” = parago. Related to “gathered around” in v2 & “go” in v11. 11x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of, alongside) + ago (see note VIII above). This is to lead near or by, to pass by, go along, be a passer-by.
LXVI “Levi” = Leuis. 3x in the NT. From the same as Leui (Levi, the tribe or a name); from Hebrew Levi (Levi, or the tribe of Levi); perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levi.
LXVII “Alphaeus” = Alphaios. 5x in NT. From Hebrew halap (to exchange, renew, traverse). This is Alphaeus, which shares a root with Clopas. It means “traverse” or “exchange.” See
LXVIII “tax booth” = telonion. 3x in NT. From telones (tax collector, one who worked for the Romans taking taxes from Jews; also the toll house; literally, “paying at the end”); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)} + oneomai (to buy); {from onos (a price or sum)}. This is a tax booth, toll house.
LXIX “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
LXX “got up” = anistemi. Related to “were…amazed” in v12. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note LIX above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.

15 AndLXXI as he sat at dinner in Levi’s house,LXXII many tax collectorsLXXIII and sinnersLXXIV

Notes on verse 15a

LXXI {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LXXII “house” = oikia. Related to “home” in v1. From oikos (see note VI above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
LXXIII “tax collectors” = telones. Related to “tax booth” in v14. See note LXVIII above.
LXXIV “sinners” = hamartolos. Related to “sins” in v5. From hamartano (see note XXXI above). This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.

were also sitting withLXXV Jesus and his disciplesLXXVI—for there were many who followed him. 16 When the scribes of the PhariseesLXXVII saw that he was eatingLXXVIII with sinners and tax collectors, they said to his disciples, “Why does he eat with tax collectors and sinners?” 

Notes on verses 15b-16

LXXV “sitting with” = sunanakeimai. Related to “lay” in v4. 7x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + anakeimai (to recline, particularly as one does for dinner; also reclining as a corpse); {from ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (see note XXV above)}. This is to dine, recline at a table with someone else, a dinner guest, the table itself.
LXXVI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
LXXVII “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
LXXVIII “eating” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.

17 When Jesus heardLXXIX this, he said to them, “Those who are wellLXXX have no needLXXXI of a physician,LXXXII

Notes on verse 17a

LXXIX “heard” = akouo. Same as “reported” in v1. See note IV above.
LXXX “are well” = ischuo. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance). This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXI “need” = chreia. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.
LXXXII “physician” = iatros. 7x in NT. From iaomai (to heal, particularly from a physical illness, or a spiritual difficulty; to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense). This is healer i.e. physician.

but those who areLXXXIII sick;LXXXIV I have come to callLXXXV not the righteousLXXXVI but sinners.”

Notes on verse 17b

LXXXIII “are” = echo. Same as “has” in v10. See note LII above.
LXXXIV “sick” = kakos. 16x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is wrongly, badly, cruelly, with bad motives, misery connected to affliction. It can be physically badly or morally badly, i.e. evilly.
LXXXV “call” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
LXXXVI “righteous” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.

18 Now John’sLXXXVII disciples and the Pharisees were fasting;LXXXVIII and people came and said to him, “Why do John’s disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples do not fast?” 

19 Jesus said to them, “The wedding guestsLXXXIX cannot fast while the bridegroomXC is with them, can they? As longXCI as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast. 20 The days will come when the bridegroom is taken awayXCII from them, and then they will fast on that day.

Notes on verses 18-20

LXXXVII “John’s” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v5. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XXVI above)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
LXXXVIII “fasting” = nesteuo. Related to “eating” in v16. From a (not, without) + esthio (see note LXXVIII above). This is to fast, not eat food, to make a religious fast.
LXXXIX “wedding guests” = huis + ho + numphon. Literally, “sons of the bridechamber.” Huios is the same as “Son” in v10. See note L above. Numphon is 3x in NT. From numphe (bride, daughter-in-law, young wife, or young woman); perhaps from nupto (to put on a veil as a bride does – in Latin nupto means simple to marry). This is the bridal chamber, groom, or place a wedding takes place.
XC “bridegroom” = numphios. Related to “wedding guests” in v19. 16x in NT. From numphe (see note LXXXIX above). This is bridegroom in a literal or figurative sense.
XCI “long” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
XCII “taken away” = apairo. Related to “carried” in v3. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + airo (see note XV above). This is to lift off, remove, withdraw.

21 “No one sewsXCIII a pieceXCIV of unshrunkXCV clothXCVI on an oldXCVII cloak;XCVIII

Notes on verse 21a

XCIII “sews” = epirapto. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + the same as rhaphis (a needle, whether for sewing cloth or for surgery); {from rhapto (to sew)}. This is to sew or attach using a needle.
XCIV “piece” = epiblema. 4x in NT. From epiballo (to place on, fall, lay, throw over, think about, waves crashing, emotions emerging); {from epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a patch or piece.
XCV “unshrunk” = agnaphos. 2x in NT. From a (not, without) + gnapheus (launderer, cleaner of cloth, fuller); {from knapto (to card wool)} This is carded i.e. new cloth made of wool.
XCVI “cloth” = rhakos. 2x in NT. Perhaps from rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is a rag or bit of cloth that has been torn off.
XCVII “old” = palaios. 19x in NT. From palai (former, of old); probably from palin (back, again, further). This is old, ancient, or worn out.
XCVIII “cloak” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.

otherwise, the patchXCIX pulls awayC from it, the newCI from the old, and a worseCII tearCIII is made.CIV 

Notes on verse 21b

XCIX “patch” = pleroma. 18x in NT. From pleroo (to fill, make full or complete; properly, filling something up to the maximum extent or induvial capacity; used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill); from pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is fullness, supply, completion, superabundance, or multitude.
C “pulls away” = airo. Same as “carried” in v3. See note XV above.
CI “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
CII “worse” = cheiron. Related to “sick” in v17. 11x in NT. A comparative of kakos (see note LXXIV above). This is worse, more evil in a physical, mental, or moral sense.
CIII “tear” = schisma. 8x in NT. From schizo (to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense). This is a split or a tear. Figuratively, it can refer to a schism, division, or dissension. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).
CIV “made” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note LXXI above.

22 And no one putsCV newCVI wineCVII into old wineskins;CVIII otherwise, the wine will burstCIX the skins, and the wine is lost,CX and so are the skins; but one puts newCXI wine into freshCXII wineskins.”

Notes on verse 22

CV “puts” = ballo. Related to “piece” in v21. See note XCIV above.
CVI “new” = neos. This is young, new, fresh, or youthful. This is brand new as opposed to novel (which is kainos in Greek).
CVII “wine” = oinos. Perhaps from Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is wine. It is where the word “oenophile” comes from.
CVIII “wineskins” = askos. 12x in NT – all in parallel passages. Perhaps from the same as askeo (to exercise, train, strive); probably from the same as skeuos (tool, container, property, goods). This is leather, wineskin, a leather bag for a bottle.
CIX “burst” = rhegnumi. Related to “cloth” in v21. 7x in NT. See note XCVI above.
CX “is lost” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
CXI “new” = neos. Same as “new” in v22. See note CVI above.
CXII “fresh” = kainos. Same as “new” in v21. See note CI above.

23 CXIIIOne sabbathCXIV he was goingCXV through the grainfields;CXVI

Notes on verse 23a

CXIII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note LXXI above.
CXIV “sabbath” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
CXV “going” = paraporeuomai. 5x in NT. From para (from beside, by) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, or die; transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination)}. This is to pass long, journey near, go past.
CXVI “grainfields” = sporimos. 3x in NT. From sporos (a sowing, the seed for planting); from speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); perhaps from spao (to pull, to draw a sword). This is a field that is sown, such as a grain field.

and as they madeCXVII their wayCXVIII his disciples beganCXIX to pluckCXX heads of grain.CXXI 

Notes on verse 23b

CXVII “made” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
CXVIII “way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
CXIX “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
CXX “pluck” = tillo. 3x in NT. This is to pluck or pick. It is in the word “trichotillomania.”
CXXI “heads of grain” = stachus. Related to “were…amazed” in v12 & “got u” in v14. 5x in NT. Perhaps from histemi (see note LIX above). This is a head of grain.

24 The Pharisees said to him, “Look,CXXII why are they doingCXXIII what is not lawfulCXXIV on the sabbath?” 

Notes on verse 24

CXXII “look” = idou. Related to “know” in v10. From eido (see note XLIX above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CXXIII “doing” = poieo. Same as “made” in v23. See note CXVII above.
CXXIV “is…lawful” = exesti. Related to “was” in v1 & “authority” in v10. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note V above). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.

25 And he said to them, “Have you never readCXXV what DavidCXXVI did when he and his companionsCXXVII were hungryCXXVIII and in need of food? 

Notes on verse 25

CXXV “read” = anaginosko. Related to “perceived” in v8. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + ginosko (see note XLI above). This is literally to know again – to recognize, read, or discern.
CXXVI “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
CXXVII “companions” = ho + meta + autos. Literally “those with him.”
CXXVIII “were hungry” = peinao. From peina (hunger); related to penomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is to hunger, be needy, or desire earnestly. It can be being famished in a definitive sense or in comparison to someone or something else. Figuratively, this means to crave.

26 He enteredCXXIX the houseCXXX of God, when AbiatharCXXXI was high priest,CXXXII

Notes on verse 26a

CXXIX “entered” = eiserchomai. Same as “returned” in v1. See note I above.
CXXX “house” = oikos. Same as “home” in v1. See note VI above.
CXXXI “Abiathar” = Abiathar. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Abyathar (Abiathar, a ame meaning “the great one is ather” or “father of abundance”); {from ab (father in a literal or figurative sense – grandfather, chief, ancestor) + yathar (to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel)}. This is Abiathar, a priest whose name means “father of a remnant,” “father of preeminence,” “father of plenty,” or “the great one is father.” See
CXXXII “high priest” = archiereus. Related to “began” in v23. From archo (see note CXIX above) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.

and ateCXXXIII the breadCXXXIV of the Presence,CXXXV

Notes on verse 26b

CXXXIII “ate” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
CXXXIV “bread” = artos. Related to “carried” in v3 & “taken away” in v20. Perhaps from airo (see note XV above). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
CXXXV “Presence” = prothesis. Related to “at once” in v8. 12x in NT. From protithemi (to set before, purpose, plan, determine, put in a public display); {from pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior) + tithemi (see note XL above)}. This is a setting forth – a proposal, predetermination, purpose. It can also mean something that is sacred or consecrated so it can be used for the showbread or sacred bread.

which it is not lawful for any but the priestsCXXXVI to eat,CXXXVII and he gaveCXXXVIII some to his companions.” 

27 Then he said to them, “The sabbath was made for humankind,CXXXIX and not humankind for the sabbath; 28 so the Son of Man is lordCXL even of the sabbath.”

Notes on verses 26c-28

CXXXVI “priests” = hiereus. Related to “high priest” in v26. See note CXXXII above.
CXXXVII “eat” = phago. Same as “ate” in v26. See note CXXXIII above.
CXXXVIII “gave” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXIX “humankind” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v10. See note LI above.
CXL “lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

Image credit: “Jesus Heals a Paralyzed Man” from the Galway Museum.

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