Mark 4:35-41

Mark 4:35-41
Ordinary B30


35 On that day, when eveningA had come,B he said to them, “Let us go acrossC to the other side.” 

Notes on verse 35

A “evening” = opsios. 15x in NT. From opse (after, late, in the end, in the evening); from opiso (back, behind, after); from the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back). This is afternoon, evening, nightfall, or late.
B “come” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
C “go across” = dierchomai. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.

36 And leaving the crowd behind,D they took him withE them in the boat,F just as he was. OtherG boats were with him.

Notes on verse 36

D “leaving…behind” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
E “took…with” = paralambano. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
F “boat” = ploion. From pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow). This is a boat, ship, or vessel.
G “other” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).


37 A greatH windstormI arose,J and the wavesK beatL into the boat, so that the boat was already being swamped.M 

Notes on verse 37

H “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
I “windstorm” = lailapsanemos. Lailaps is 3x in NT. This is a sudden storm like a squall or a gale. Anemos is from aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is wind or a gust of air. It can also be used figuratively for empty doctrines.
J “arose” = ginomai. Same as “come” in v35. See note B above.
K “waves” = kuma. 5x in NT. From kuo (to swell as one pregnant). This is a wave, billow, curve, or bend.
L “beat” = epiballo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to place on, fall, lay, throw over, think about, waves crashing, emotions emerging.
M “being swamped” = gemizo. 8x in NT. From gemo (to be full, swell, at capacity, actions taken to fulfill a goal). This is to fill up or load, be swamped as a boat with water.

38 But he was in the stern,N asleepO on the cushion;P

Notes on verse 38a

N “stern” = prumna. 3x in NT. From prumnos (backmost). This is the back part, i.e. the stern.
O “asleep” = katheudo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + heudo (to sleep). This is to settle down to rest, to sleep, fall asleep in a literal or figurative sense.
P “cushion” = proskephalaion. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kephale (head or chief; literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord, corner stone); from kapto (to seize)}. This is literally towards the head, so it refers to a cushion or pillow.

and they woke him upQ and said to him, “Teacher,R do you not careS that we are perishing?”T 

Notes on verse 38b

Q “woke…up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
R “teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
S “care” = melo. 10x in NT. This is to think about something, take an interest, to pay attention. It is to care or worry about something.
T “perishing” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

39 He woke upU and rebukedV the wind, and said to the sea,W “Peace!X Be still!”Y

Notes on verse 39a

U “woke up” = diegeiro. Related to “woke…up” in v38. 6x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + egeiro (see note Q above). This is to rise, wake up, stir up. It is to rouse in a literal or figurative sese. It can also mean to refresh memory or for seas being stirred up.
V “rebuked” = epitimao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + timao (properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor); {from time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to render what is due – to assign the value that is appropriate for the situation. So, it could mean to honor or to warn, to rebuke or to charge. Generally, it is a warning meant to guide someone away from doing something wrong or taking the wrong path. It can imply to forbid.
W “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.
X “peace” = siopao. 10x in NT. From siope (silence or muteness). This is to be silent whether by choice or not. Figuratively, this is being calm as water, keeping one’s peace.
Y “be still” = phimoo. 8x in NT. From phimos (a muzzle). This is to muzzle so speechless, silence, quiet.

Then the wind ceased,Z and there wasAA a deadBB calm.CC 

Notes on verse 39b

Z “ceased” = kopazo. 3x in NT. From kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is to tire, be stilled, stop, or cease. It can also mean to relax.
AA “was” = ginomai. Same as “come” n v35. See note B above.
BB “dead” = megas. Same as “great” in v37. See note H above.
CC “calm” = galene. 3x in NT. Perhaps akin to gelao (to laugh or smile because of joy or being satisfied). This is calm or tranquility as a sea being still. This is where the ancient Greek physician Galen’s name comes from.

40 He said to them, “Why are you afraid?DD Have you still no faith?”EE 

41 And they were filledFF with great aweGG and said to one another, “Who then is this, that even the wind and the sea obeyHH him?”

Notes on verses 40-41

DD “afraid” = deilos. 4x in NT. From deos (fear, reverence); from deido (to fear). This is fearful, timid, faithless, fear of losing.
EE “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
FF “filled” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
GG “awe” = phobos. Related to “filled” in v41. See note FF above.
HH “obey” = hupakouo. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing). This is to listen, to attend to, or obey. It is acting subordinate to one who speaks – heeding a command or authority.

Image credit: “Christ on the Sea of Galilee” by Eugène Delacroix, 1841.

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