Mark 7

Mark 7


1 Now when the PhariseesI and some of the scribesII who had comeIII from JerusalemIV gathered aroundV him, 

Notes on verse 1

I “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
II “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
III “come” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
IV “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
V “gathered around” = sunago. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”

they noticedVI that some of his disciplesVII were eatingVIII, IX

Notes on verse 2a

VI “noticed” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
VII “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
VIII “eating” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.
IX {untranslated} = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.

with defiledX hands,XI that is,XII without washingXIII them. 

Notes on verse 2b

X “defiled” = koinos. 14x in NT. From sun (with, together with). This is common, shared – something for ordinary or everyday use. It can also denote unclean, unholy, or profane – unholy rather than something reserved for a sacred purpose.
XI “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
XII “is” = eimi. This is to be or exist.
XIII “without washing” = aniptos. 2x in NT. From a (not, without) + nipto (to wash, particularly the hands, feet, or face; often used for ceremonial or ritual ablution); {from nizo (to cleanse)}. This is unwashed or ritually unclean.

3 (For the Pharisees, and all the Jews,XIV do not eat unless they thoroughlyXV washXVI their hands, thus observingXVII the traditionXVIII of the elders;XIX 

Notes on verse 3

XIV “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Juadas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XV “thoroughly” = pugme. 1x in NT. From pux (fist). This is a fist or clenched hand. So, perhaps its means carefully or thoroughly.
XVI “wash” = nipto. Related to “without washing” in v2. 17x in NT. See note XIII above.
XVII “observing” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
XVIII “tradition” = paradosis. 13x in NT. From paradidomi (literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement); {from para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is something handed down or handed over. So, it could be some kind of instruction, ordinance, or tradition. It can be used to refer to the tradition of the elders within Judaism.
XIX “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.

and they do not eat anything from the marketXX unless they washXXI it; and there are also manyXXII otherXXIII traditionsXXIV that they observe,

Notes on verse 4a

XX “market” = agora. 11x in NT. From ageiro (to gather). This is assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare. This is where “agoraphobia” comes from.
XXI “wash” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
XXII “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XXIII “other” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
XXIV “traditions” = paralambano. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.

the washingXXV of cups,XXVI pots,XXVII and bronzeXXVIII kettles.)XXIX 

Notes on verse 4b

XXV “washing” = baptismos. Related to “wash” in v4. 5x in NT. From baptizo (see note XXI above). This is washing or baptism.
XXVI “cups” = poterion. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is a drinking vessel. Figuratively, it can refer to one’s lot, to fate, or to what God has in store for you.
XXVII “pots” = xestes. 2x in NT– both in this passage. Related to xeo (to smooth, to heat) OR from Latin sextarius (a sixth; a measurement; perhaps around a pint); {from sextus (sixth); {from sex (six) + -arius (suffix to form an adjective)}}. This is a sextarius or a pitcher. It is a unit of measurement equal to around a pint. It was also used for a jug of any size.
XXVIII “bronze” = chalkion. 1x in NT. From chalkos (copper or bronze; things made of brass – money, instruments, etc.); perhaps from chalao (let down, slacken, loosen). This is something made of bronze or brass like a utensil or pot.
XXIX “kettles” = kline. 9x in NT. From klino (to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear; to bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee). This is couch, bed, mat. Either a couch laid on to eat or for sleeping.

5 So the Pharisees and the scribes askedXXX him, “Why do your disciples not liveXXXI according to the traditionXXXII of the elders, but eatXXXIII with defiled hands?” 

Notes on verse 5

XXX “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
XXXI “live” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
XXXII “tradition” = paradosis. Same as “tradition” in v3. See note XVIII above.
XXXIII {untranslated} = artos. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note IX above.

6 He said to them, “IsaiahXXXIV prophesiedXXXV rightlyXXXVI about you hypocrites,XXXVII as it is written,XXXVIII

Notes on verse 6a

XXXIV “Isaiah” = Esaias. From Hebrew Yeshayahu (Isaiah, “salvation of the Lord”); {from yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe; to free someone) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}}. This is Isaiah, meaning “salvation of the Lord.”
XXXV “prophesied” = propheteuo. From prophetes (prophet or poet; one who speaks with inspiration from God); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}}. This is to prophesy, foretell, or tell forth.
XXXVI “rightly” = kalos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably.
XXXVII “hypocrites” = hupokrites. 18x n NT. From hupokrinomai (to answer, pretend, respond as an actor on stage; figuratively, to lie) {from hupo (by, under, about) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.)}. This is literally an actor. Figuratively, it is someone playing out a role, which is to say, lying, pretending, or being a hypocrite. This is where the word “hypocrite” comes from.
XXXVIII “written” = grapho. Related to “scribes” in v1. See note II above.

‘This peopleXXXIX honorsXL me with their lips,XLI
    but their heartsXLII are farXLIII from me;

Notes on verse 6b

XXXIX “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
XL “honors” = timao. From time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value). Properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor.
XLI “lips” = cheilos. Related to “hands” in v2. 7x in NT. Perhaps from the same as chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn); from chao (to gape, yawn). This is lip, edge, shore, mouth, language.
XLII “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
XLIII “are far” = apecho. 19x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is to be distant, have fully, abstain, be paid, be distant, be enough. It is having something by detaching it from something else or releasing something else.

in vainXLIV do they worshipXLV me,
    teachingXLVI humanXLVII preceptsXLVIII as doctrines.’XLIX

Notes on verse 7

XLIV “in vain” = maten. 2x in NT. From mate (a folly) OR from the base of massaomai (to chew, gnaw); {from masso (to kneed, squeeze)}. This is in vain, aimlessly, pointless, fruitless.
XLV “worship” = sebo. 10x in NT. This is to worship, revere, adore, be devout. Properly this is personally placing a high value on someone or something, showing respect.
XLVI “teaching” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
XLVII “human” = anthropos. Related to “noticed” in v2. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note VI above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XLVIII “precepts” = entalma. 3x in NT. From entellomai (to charge, command, give orders or instructions) {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}. This is a commandment, precept, or injunction.
XLIX “doctrines” = didaskalia. Related to “teaching” in v7. From didaskalos (teacher, master); from didasko (see note XLVI above). This is an instruction or doctrine – it is applied knowledge.

8 You abandonL the commandmentLI of GodLII and holdLIII to human tradition.”LIV, LV

Notes on verse 8

L “abandon” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
LI “commandment” = entole. Related to “precepts” in v7. From entellomai (see note XLVIII above). This is an order, command, ordinance, or law. It focuses on the purpose of the command and its end result.
LII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
LIII “hold” = krateo. Same as “observing” in v3. See note XVII above.
LIV “tradition” = paradosis. Same as “tradition” in v3. See note XVIII above.
LV Some manuscripts add, “you do the washings of vessels and cups and other things like that” = baptismos + xestes + kai + poterion + kai + allos + paromoios + toioutos + polus + poieo. Baptismos is the same as “washing” in v4. See note XXV above. Xestes is the same as “pots” in v4. See note XXVII above. Poterion is the same as “cups” in v4. See note XXVI above. Allos is the same as “other” in v4. See note XXIII above. Polus is the same as “many” in v4. See note XXII above. Poieo is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.

Then he said to them, “You have a fineLVI way of rejectingLVII the commandment of God in order to keepLVIII your tradition!LIX 

Notes on verse 9

LVI “fine” = kalos. Same as “rightly” in v6. See note XXXVI above.
LVII “rejecting” = atheteo. 16x in NT. From athetos (not having position or place); {from a (not) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is setting something aside, ignoring or nullifying it, refusing or rejecting. It can also mean to annul or cancel out the effect of something. Literally, this is to un-place. It can also be rejecting something, despising it, or considering something invalid.
LVIII “keep” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used figuratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
LIX “tradition” = paradosis. Same as “tradition” in v3. See note XVIII above.

10 For MosesLX said, ‘Honor your fatherLXI and your mother’; and, ‘Whoever speaks evilLXII of father or mother must surely die.’LXIII 

Notes on verse 10

LX “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
LXI “father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
LXII “speaks evil” = kakologeo. 4x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill. It is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm. It refers to deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is to curse, speak evil of, abuse. It is words chosen specifically to cause harm or misconstrue – to make evil look like good or wrong like right.
LXIII “must surely die” = thanatos + teleutao. Thanatos is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal. Teleutao is related to “precepts” in v7 & “commandment” in v8. 13x in NT. From teleute (end, finishing, consummation; can also be used for death); from teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); from telos (see note XLVIII above). This is to complete or come to the end/end goal. It can also mean to finish life or to meet one’s ultimate fate in heaven or hell.

11 But you sayLXIV that if anyoneLXV tells father or mother, ‘Whatever supportLXVI you might have had from me is Corban’LXVII (that is, an offeringLXVIII to God)— 

Notes on verse 11

LXIV “say” = lego. Related to “speaks evil” in v10. See note LXII above.
LXV “anyone” = anthropos. Same as “human” in v7. See note XLVII above.
LXVI “support” = opheleo. 15x in NT. From ophelos (help, gain, profit); from ophello (to heap up or increase). This is to help, benefit, do good, or be useful.
LXVII “Corban” = korban. 2x in NT. From Hebrew qorban (offering brought to the altar); from qarab (to come near, offer, make ready). This is a gift or offering to God – something that has been dedicated to God. Offerings made to the temple treasury were dedicated to God and so this word came to be used to refer to the temple treasury as well (as the place that held all these devoted gifts).
LXVIII “offering” = doron. Related to “tradition” in v3. 19x in NT. From didomi (see note XVIII above). This is gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily.

12 then you no longer permitLXIX doingLXX anything for a father or mother, 13 thus making voidLXXI the wordLXXII of God through your traditionLXXIII that you have handed on.LXXIV And you do many things like this.”

Notes on verses 12-13

LXIX “permit” = aphiemi. Same as “abandon” in v8. See note L above.
LXX “doing” = poieo. Same as {untranslated} in v8. See note LV above.
LXXI “making void” = akuroo. 3x in NT. From a (not, without) + kuros (authority). This is revoke, make void, or cancel.
LXXII “word” = logos. Related to “speaks evil” in v10 & “say” in v11. See note LXII above.
LXXIII “tradition” = paradosis. Same as “tradition” in v3. See note XVIII above.
LXXIV “handed on” = paradidomi. Related to “tradition” in v3 & “offering” in v11. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note XVIII above). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

14 Then he calledLXXV the crowd again and said to them, “ListenLXXVI to me, all of you, and understand:LXXVII 15 there is nothing outside a personLXXVIII that by goingLXXIX in canLXXX defile,LXXXI

Notes on verses 14-15a

LXXV “called” = proskaleo. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to oneself, summon.
LXXVI “listen” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LXXVII “understand” = suniemi. Related to “abandon” in v8. From sun (with, together with) + hiemi (see note L above). This is to put together – used figuratively to mean understand, consider, gain insight. It is bringing together facts or notions and synthesizing them into a whole. It is making a summary to arrive at a final conclusion that includes how to apply the insight to life. It can also imply acting piously or being wise.
LXXVIII “person” = anthropos. Same as “human” in v7. See note XLVII above.
LXXIX “going” = eisporeuomai. 18x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. 18x in NT. This is to enter or journey in in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXX “can” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
LXXXI “defile” = koinoo. Related to “defiled” in v2. 14x in NT. From koinos (see note X above). This is to make something common i.e. treated as ordinary and so not ceremonially pure/sacred. So, it can also mean to pollute or desecrate.

but the things that comeLXXXII outLXXXIII are what defile.”LXXXIV, LXXXV

Notes on verse 15b

LXXXII “come” = ekporeuomai. Related to “going” in v15. From ek (from, from out of) + poreuomai (see note LXXIX above). This is to go forth, depart from, be spoken, flow out, project. This word emphasizes the result a process or passage – how it impacts the person or thing.
LXXXIII {untranslated} = anthropos. Same as “human” in v7. See note XLVII above.
LXXXIV {untranslated} = anthropos. Same as “human” in v7. See note XLVII above.
LXXXV Some manuscripts add Verse 16 “Let anyone with ears to hear listen.” “With” = echo. Related to “are far” in v6. See note XLIII above. “Ears” = ous. This is the physical ear, or the perception of hearing, whether physical or cognitive. “Hear” = akouo. Same as “listen” in v14. See note LXXVI above.

17 When he had left the crowd and enteredLXXXVI the house,LXXXVII his disciples asked him about the parable.LXXXVIII 

18 He said to them, “Then do you also fail to understand?LXXXIX Do you not seeXC that whatever goesXCI into a person from outside cannot defile, 

Notes on verses 17-18

LXXXVI “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “come” in v1. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note III above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXVII “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
LXXXVIII “parable” = parabole. From paraballo (literally to throw beside, compare, arrive, liken); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a parable, comparison, adage. Quite often a tale told or a metaphor to establish a point, but it could be a true story.
LXXXIX “fail to understand” = asunetos. Related to “abandon” in v8 & “understand” in v14. 5x in NT. From a (not, without) + sunetos (intelligent, wise, discerning, clever; finding understanding within one’s own frame of reference by connecting facts and concepts; focuses on the mental process of putting things together – being prudent or wise); {from suneimi (to put together – used figuratively to mean understand, consider, gain insight; this is bringing together facts or notions and synthesizing them into a whole; making a summary to arrive at a final conclusion that includes how to apply the insight to life; it can also imply acting piously or being wise); {from sun (with, together with) + hiemi (see note L above)}}. This is literally not understanding or undiscerning. It is someone who doesn’t comprehend, is foolish because they do not connect facts or process information meaningfully. It is an illogical person who chooses not to reason well. It can also imply moral fault and wickedness.
XC “see” = noeo. 14x in NT. From nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}. This is to think, understand, conceive, realize, see. It is one who thinks things through sufficiently to reach a conclusion or value judgment. It is also one’s moral reasoning.
XCI “goes” = eisporeuomai. Same as “going” in v15. See note LXXIX above.

19 since it enters,XCII not the heart but the stomach,XCIII and goes outXCIV into the sewer?”XCV (Thus he declared all foodsXCVI clean.)XCVII 

Notes on verse 19

XCII “enters” = eisporeuomai. Same as “going” in v15. See note LXXIX above.
XCIII “stomach” = koilia. From koilos (hollow). This is belly or organs in the abdomen. So, it could be stomach, womb, or heart. Figuratively, this refers to one’s inner self.
XCIV “goes out” = ekporeuomai. Same as “come out” in v15. See note LXXXII above.
XCV “sewer” = aphedron. 2x in NT– both in parallel passages. From apo (from, away from) + hedraios (sitting, well-seated, immovable; figuratively, steadfast, firm, morally fixed); {from hedra (a seat) or from hezomai (to sit)}. This is a privy, drain, or latrine. Literally, it is a place where one wits apart (from others).
XCVI “foods” = broma. 17x in NT. From bibrosko (to eat); related to bora (food); perhaps from bosko (to feed or pasture a flock; figuratively, to nourish spiritually). This is any kind of food in a literal or figurative sense.
XCVII “declared…clean” = katharizo. From katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying). This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.

20 And he said, “It is what comes out of a person that defiles.XCVIII 21 For it is from within, from the human heart, that evilXCIX intentionsC come: fornication,CI theft,CII murder,CIII 

Notes on verses 20-21

XCVIII {untranslated} = anthropos. Same as “human” in v7. See note XLVII above.
XCIX “evil” = kakos. Related to “speaks evil” in v10. See note LXII above.
C “intentions” = dialogismos. Related to “speaks evil” in v10 & “say” in v11 & “word” in v14. 14x in NT. From dialogizomai (to consider, have a back and forth debate with an uncertain conclusion; multiple confused minds reinforcing a faulty conclusion); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + logizmai (to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense); {from logos (see note LXII above)}. This is reasoning, plotting, argument, discussion that reinforces faulty reasoning, debate.
CI “fornication” = porneia. From porneuo (to fornicate – used figuratively for practicing idolatry or doing immoral things); from porne (prostitute, whore); from pornos (fornicator or immoral person); perhaps from pernemi (to sell off or export); related to piprasko (to sell with travel involved; to sell into slavery; to be devoted to); from perao (to travel); from peran (over, beyond). This is sexual immorality or unchastity. It could include adultery or incest.
CII “theft” = klope. 2x in NT. From klepto (to steal secretively). This is stealing by stealth or fraud. It is not done using force or in the open.
CIII “murder” = phonos. 9x in NT. From pheno (to slay). This is killing, murder, or slaughter. It is one of the crimes that Barabbas and Saul are accused of.

22 adultery,CIV avarice,CV wickedness,CVI deceit,CVII licentiousness,CVIII

Notes on verse 22a

CIV “adultery” = moicheia. 3x in NT. From moicheuo (committing adultery or adultery itself; a man with a married woman or a married man with anyone other than his wife); from moichos (adulterer; a man who has been with a married woman; used figuratively of an apostate). This is adultery. It is used for the woman caught in adultery in John 8:3 (“whoever is without sin cast the first stone”).
CV “avarice” = pleonexia. Related to “many” in v4 & “are far” in v6 & “with” in v16. 10x in NT. From pleonektes (one who covets more, covetousness, avariciousness, one who defrauds or harms others’ rights; one eager for gain); {from pleion (many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent); from polus (see note XXII above) + echo (see note XLIII above)}. This is avarice, greed, advantage, desire for more. It can imply fraudulence or extortion.
CVI “wickedness” = poneria. 7x in NT. From poneros (bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome; properly, something that bears pain –emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil); from poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is iniquity, wickedness, pain-ridden evil. It is the drudgery of evil and sin. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
CVII “deceit” = dolos. 11x in NT. From dello (probably to decoy). This is literally bait, but used figuratively for treachery, stealth, guile, or deceit.
CVIII “licentiousness” = aselgeia. 10x in NT. From aselges (brutal) OR from a (not) + selges (temperate). This is wantonness, shocking behavior, wanton violence, acting in an unrestrained and capricious way.

envy,CIX slander,CX pride,CXI folly.CXII 23 All these evilCXIII things come from within, and they defile a person.”

Notes on verses 22b-23

CIX “envy” = ophthalmos + poneros. Literally, “evil eye.” Ophthalmos is related to “noticed” in v2 & “human” in v7. From optanomai (see note XLVII above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy. Poneros is related to “wickedness” in v22. See note CVI above.
CX “slander” = blasphemia. Related to “prophesied” in v6. 18x in NT. From perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (see note XXXV above)}. This is slander, blasphemy, or abusive language. It is calling something wrong that is right or calling something right that is wrong – mis-identifying what is good and bad. This is particularly used for vilifying God. This is where the word “blasphemy” comes from.
CXI “pride” = huerephania. Related to “prophesied” in v6 & “slander” in v22. 1x in NT. From huperephanos (proud, arrogant; thinking one outshines others); {from huper (over, above, beyond) + phaino (see note XXXV above)}. This is disdain, pride, lifting self up, vanity.
CXII “folly” = aphrosune. 4x in NT– 1x in Mark 7 & 3x in 2 Corinthians 11. From aphron (not having reason – foolish, unperceptive, unwise; short-sightedness and lack of perspective, which leads one to act without prudence; not grasping cause and effect, willful ignorance; being rash or egotistical); {from a (not, without) + phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); {perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb)}}. This is foolishness, impiety, folly. It is one who does not have perspective, is morally reckless, or senseless.
CXIII “evil” = poneros. Same as “envy” in v22. See note CIX above.

24 From there he set outCXIV and went awayCXV to the regionCXVI of Tyre.CXVII, CXVIII 

Notes on verse 24a

CXIV “set out” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CXV “went away” = aperchomai. Related to “come” in v1 & “entered” in v17. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note III above). This is to depart, follow,  or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
CXVI “region” = horion. 12x in NT. From horos (limit, boundary). This is a boundary on land or a coast. It could be district, region, territory, or frontier.
CXVII “Tyre” = Turos. 11x in NT. From Phoenician t-s-r (rock; “after the rocky formation on which the town was originally built”). This is Tyre, the capital of Phoenicia. See
CXVIII Some manuscripts add “and Sidon.” “Sidon” = Sidon. 10x in NT. From Phoenician tsydon (Sidon; probably meaning fishery or fishing town). This is Sidon – a city in Phoenicia. See &

He entered a houseCXIX and did not wantCXX anyone to knowCXXI he was there. Yet he could not escape notice,CXXII 

Notes on verse 24b

CXIX “house” = oikia. Related to “house” in v17. From oikos (see note LXXXVII above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
CXX “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
CXXI “know” = ginosko. Related to “see” in v18. See note XC above.
CXXII “escape notice” = lanthano. 6x in NT– same as “entertained angels unawares” in Hebrew 13:2. This is concealed, hidden, unnoticed. It is to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares.

25 but a womanCXXIII whose little daughterCXXIV had an uncleanCXXV spiritCXXVI

Notes on verse 25a

CXXIII “woman” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CXXIV “little daughter” = thugatrion. 2x in NT– of Jairus’s daughter and the Syrophoenician woman’s daughter. From thugater (daughter, a related female or one who lives with you). This is a little or young daughter.
CXXV “unclean” = akathartos. Related to “declared…clean” in v19. From a (not, without) + kathairo (to cleanse or purify by purging out unwanted elements); {from katharos (see note XCVII above)}. This is unclean or impure, whether a thing or a person. It is something that is not mixed with something that would taint. This is unclean in a ritual or moral sense. It can also mean demonic or foul.
CXXVI “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

immediatelyCXXVII heard about him, and she came and bowed downCXXVIII at his feet.CXXIX 26 Now the woman was a Gentile,CXXX of SyrophoenicianCXXXI origin.CXXXII

Notes on verses 25b-26a

CXXVII “immediately” = eutheos. Related to “rejecting” in v9. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (see note LVII above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
CXXVIII “bowed down” = prospipto. 8x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to fall on or fall before. It can be a violent attack, bowing before, or beat against.
CXXIX “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXX “Gentile” = Hellenis. 2x in NT. From Hellen (Greek; used for Gentiles, broader populations that spoke Greek and were a part of Greek culture regardless of their heritage); from Hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is a female Greek, i.e. a Gentile. See
CXXXI “Syrophoenician” = Surophoinikissa. 1x in NT. From Suros (Syrian, from Syria); {from Suria (Syria); from Akkadian Ashshur (after the god Ashur, head of their gods)} + Phoinike (Phoenicia, perhaps meaning “palm country”); {probably from phoinix (palm tree, palm branch, date palm)} or {from Phoinix (Phoenician, Tyrian purple); related to phoinos (red); probably related to Egyptian fenkhu (carpenter – used to refer to a people)}. This is a Syrophoenician female. It is the Phoenician territory in Syria and not in North Africa or Carthage. See;;
CXXXII “origin” = genos. Related to “woman” in v25. From ginomai (see note CXXIII above). This is family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense.

She beggedCXXXIII him to castCXXXIV the demonCXXXV out of her daughter.CXXXVI 

Notes on verse 26b

CXXXIII “begged” = erotao. Related to “asked” in v5. See note XXX above.
CXXXIV “cast” = ekballo. Related to “parable” in v17. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (see note LXXXVIII above). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXV “demon” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.
CXXXVI “daughter” = thugater. Related to “little daughter” in v25. See note CXXIV above.

27 He said to her, “LetCXXXVII the childrenCXXXVIII be fedCXXXIX first, for it is not fairCXL to takeCXLI the children’s foodCXLII and throwCXLIII it to the dogs.”CXLIV 

Notes on verse 27

CXXXVII “let” = aphiemi. Same as “abandon” in v8. See note L above.
CXXXVIII “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
CXXXIX “be fed” = chortazo. 16x in NT. From chortos (food, grass, grain, hay; a place for feeding, a court, garden; by implication, a pasture or vegetation). This is to feed, fodder, fill, or satisfy. It carries the sense of abundantly supplied food – even gorging on food.
CXL “fair” = kalos. Related to “rightly” in v6. See note XXXVI above.
CXLI “take” = lambano. Related to “traditions” in v4. See note XXIV above.
CXLII “food” = artos. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note IX above.
CXLIII “throw” = ballo. Related to “parable” in v17 & “cast” in v26. See note LXXXVIII above.
CXLIV “dogs” = kunarion. 4x in NT. From kuon (a dog as a scavenger or, figuratively, a spiritual predator). This is a little dog.

28 But she answered him, “CXLVSir,CXLVI even the dogs under the tableCXLVII eat the children’sCXLVIII crumbs.”CXLIX 

Notes on verse 28

CXLV {untranslated} = nai. This is yes, truly, indeed. It is a strong affirmation.
CXLVI “sir” = Kurios. Related to “making void” in v13. From kuros (see note LXXI above). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
CXLVII “table” = trapeza. Related to “feet” in v25. 15x in NT. Probably from tessares (four; figuratively, can mean total inclusion or universality) + peze (by foot or land) or pezos (by foot or land); {from pous (see note CXXIX above)}. This is a table – whether for eating or conducting business. Literally, four feet. This is where the word “trapeze” comes from.
CXLVIII “children’s” = paidion. Related to “live” in v5. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (see note XXXI above). This is a child as one who is still being educated or trained. Perhaps one seven years old or younger. Used figuratively for an immature Christian.
CXLIX “crumbs” = psichion. 2x in NT. From psich (crumb) OR from psallo (to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp); {from psao (to rub)}. This is a crumb or small morsel. It can specifically refer to a breadcrumb.

29 Then he said to her, “For saying that,CL you may goCLI—the demon has leftCLII your daughter.” 

30 So she went home, foundCLIII the childCLIV lyingCLV on the bed,CLVI and the demon gone.CLVII

Notes on verses 29-30

CL “for saying that” = dia + houtos + ho + logos. Literally, “because of this word.” “Word” is logos. Same as “word” in v13. See note LXXII above.
CLI “go” = hupago. Related to “gathered around” in v1. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note V above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
CLII “left” = exerchomai. Related to “come” in v1 & “entered” in v17 & “went away” in v24. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note III above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
CLIII “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CLIV “child” = paidion. Same as “children’s” in v28. See note CXLVIII above.
CLV “lying” = ballo. Same as “throw” in v27. See note CXLIII above.
CLVI “bed” = kline. Same as “kettles” in v4. See note XXIX above.
CLVII “gone” = exerchomai. Same as “left” in v29. See note CLII above.

31 Then he returnedCLVIII from the region of Tyre, and went by way of Sidon towards the SeaCLIX of Galilee,CLX in the region of the Decapolis.CLXI 

Notes on verse 31

CLVIII “returned” = exerchomai. Same as “left” in v29. See note CLII above.
CLIX “Sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.
CLX “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
CLXI “Decapolis” = Dekapolis. 3x in NT. From deka (ten, -teen) + polis (a city or its inhabitants; is a town of variable size, but one that has walls). This is the Decapolis, a group of ten cities that are Greek.

32 They broughtCLXII to him a deaf manCLXIII who had an impediment in his speech;CLXIV and they beggedCLXV him to layCLXVI his hand on him. 

Notes on verse 32

CLXII “brought” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXIII “deaf man” = kophos. 14x in NT. Perhaps from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is literally blunted or dull. Figuratively, it can be deaf or mute or a person who is deaf or mute.
CLXIV “had an impediment in his speech” = mogilalos. 1x in NT. From mogis (scarcely, barely; something that only happens with difficulty; emphasizes that the action is prolonged and therefore difficult); {from molis (something that hardly happens and/or requires a lot of effort) or mogos (laborious toil) or molos (toil)} + laleo (to talk, say, preach); {from lalos (talkative)}. This is someone who has a hard time speaking – a stammerer or someone who is mute or doesn’t speak much.
CLXV “begged” = parakaleo. Related to “called” in v14. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note LXXV above). This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
CLXVI “lay” = epitithemi. Related to “rejecting” in v9 & “immediately” in v25. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (see note LVII above). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.

33 He tookCLXVII him aside in private,CLXVIII away from the crowd, and putCLXIX his fingersCLXX into his ears, and he spat and touchedCLXXI his tongue.CLXXII 

Notes on verse 33

CLXVII “took” = apolambano. Related to “traditions” in v4 & “take” in v27. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + lambano (see note XXIV above). This is to receive back, separate, to get one’s due.
CLXVIII “private” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
CLXIX “put” = ballo. Same as “throw” in v27. See note CXLIII above.
CLXX “fingers” = daktulos. Related to “Decapolis” in v31. 8x in NT. Probably from deka (see note CLXI above). This is finger.
CLXXI “touched” = haptomai. From hapto (to touch, handle, kindle, lay hold of). This is a touch that has an impact on what is being touched – it has an influence on the recipient so that the recipient is changed.
CLXXII “tongue” = glossa. Root refers to a point that sticks out. This is tongue in a literal sense, but can also refer to language or a nation that speaks a different language. Figuratively, it can also refer to speaking in tongues or speech inspired by the Spirit.

34 Then looking upCLXXIII to heaven,CLXXIV he sighedCLXXV and said to him, “Ephphatha,”CLXXVI that is, “Be opened.”CLXXVII 

Notes on verse 34

CLXXIII “looking up” = anablepo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look up or regain sight.
CLXXIV “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CLXXV “sighed” = stenazo. Related to “set out” in v24. 6x in NT. From steno (to sigh or groan) OR stenos (narrow, small, having obstacles close by); {probably from histemi (see note CXIV above)}. This is to groan or sigh deeply. It can be to express sadness, anger, or longing. It is a deep, inner emotion that is not articulated.
CLXXVI “Ephphatha” = ephphatha. 1x in NT. From Aramaic pethach (to open); corresponding to Hebrew pathach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense; to open, draw out, let something go free, break forth, to plow, engrave, or carve). This is a transliteration of Aramaic, meaning “be opened.”
CLXXVII “be opened” = dianoigo. 8x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + anoigo (to open or open up in a literal or figurative sense; to speak freely); {from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open)}. This is to open fully. It can mean to open the womb as a firstborn does or figuratively to explain or expound.

35 And immediately his earsCLXXVIII were opened,CLXXIX his tongue was released,CXXX, CLXXXI and he spokeCLXXXII plainly.CLXXXIII 

Notes on verse 35

CLXXVIII “ears” = akoe. Related to “listen” in v14. From akouo (see note LXXVI above). This is hearing, ear, audience, fame, report, rumor.
CLXXIX “opened” = anoigo. Related to “be opened” in v34. See note CLXXVII above.
CLXXX “released” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.
CLXXXI {untranslated} = desmos. 18x in NT. from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is a chain or bond. So, it can refer to the state of being imprisoned or some kind of infirmity.
CLXXXII “spoke” = laleo. Related to “had a speech impediment” in v32. See note CLXIV above.
CLXXXIII “plainly” = orthos. 4x in NT. From orthos (straight, direct, morally upright). This is properly, correct, plainly, rightly.

36 Then Jesus orderedCLXXXIV them to tell no one; but the more he ordered them, the more zealouslyCLXXXV they proclaimedCLXXXVI it. 

Notes on verse 36

CLXXXIV “ordered” = diastello. Related to “set out” in v24 & “sighed” in v34. 8x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (see note CXIV above)}. This is to set apart, distinguish, give a commission, order, set apart for service.
CLXXXV “zealously” = perissos. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently.
CLXXXVI “proclaimed” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.

37 They were astoundedCLXXXVII beyond measure,CLXXXVIII saying, “He has done everything well;CLXXXIX he even makesCXC the deaf to hear and the muteCXCI to speak.”CXCII

Notes on verse 37

CLXXXVII “astounded” = ekplesso. 13x in NT. From ek (out, out of) + plesso (to pound, strike, flatten; figuratively, cause a calamity). This is to strike with panic, astonish shock. It is a moment that shakes someone from their senses and leaves them dumbfounded or at a loss.
CLXXXVIII “beyond measure” = huerperissos. Related to “zealously” in v36. 1x in NT. From huper (over, above, beyond) + perissos (see note CLXXXV above). This is beyond measure, abounding, exceeding, overflowing.
CLXXXIX “well” = kalos. Same as “rightly” in v6. See note XXXVI above.
CXC “makes” = poieo. Same as {untranslated} in v8. See note LV above.
CXCI “mute” = alalos. Related to “had a speech impediment” in v32 & “spoke” in v35. 3x in NT. From a (not, without) + lalos (see note CLXIII above). This is someone who is mute or speechless.
CXCII “speak” = laleo. Same as “spoke” in v35. See note CLXXXII above.

Image credit: “Healing of the Deaf Mute” from Johanneskirche in Müstair by Meister von Müstair, circa 830.

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