Matthew 26:17-56

Matthew 26:17-56
Maundy Thursday – A Women’s Lectionary


17 On the firstI day of UnleavenedII Bread the disciplesIII cameIV to Jesus,V

Notes on verse 17a

I “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
II “Unleavened” = azumos. 9x in NT. From a (not, without) + zume (yeast in a literal or figurative sense – an influence that grows, but is not easily detected); {perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest)}. This is unleavened – can refer specifically to the Passover meal. Figuratively, it is sincere or not corrupted.
III “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
IV “came” = proserchomai. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
V “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

saying,VI “Where do you wantVII us to make the preparationsVIII for you to eatIX the Passover?”X 

Notes on verse 17b

VI “saying” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
VII “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
VIII “make the preparations” = hetoimazo. From hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge). This is to prepare or provide.
IX “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
X “Passover” = pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”

18 He said, “GoXI into the cityXII to a certain man,XIII

Notes on verse 18a

XI “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
XII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
XIII “certain man” = deina. 1x in NT. Of uncertain origin. This is properly, to so and so – as one says when one relates a story, but doesn’t specifically state the name or when they don’t think the name is relevant.

and say to him, ‘The TeacherXIV says, My timeXV isXVI near;XVII I will keepXVIII the Passover at your house with my disciples.’” 19 So the disciples didXIX as Jesus had directedXX them, and they prepared the Passover meal.

Notes on verses 18b-19

XIV “Teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
XV “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
XVI “is” = eimi. This is to be or exist.
XVII “near” = eggus. Perhaps from agcho (to squeeze). This is nearby or near in time.
XVIII “keep” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XIX “did” = poieo. Same as “keep” in v18. See note XVIII above.
XX “directed” = suntasso. 3x in NT. From sun (with together with) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to direct, arrange, prescribe, or instruct.

20 When it wasXXI evening, he took his placeXXII with the twelve;XXIII 

Notes on verse 20

XXI “was” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XXII “took his place” = anakeimai. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.
XXIII “twelve” = dodeka. From duo (two, both) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.

21 and while they were eating,XXIV he said, “TrulyXXV I tell you, oneXXVI of you will betrayXXVII me.” 

Notes on verse 21

XXIV “eating” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.
XXV “truly” = amen. From aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
XXVI “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XXVII “betray” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

22 And they became greatlyXXVIII distressedXXIX and beganXXX to say to him one after another, “Surely notXXXI I, Lord?”XXXII 

Notes on verse 22

XXVIII “greatly” = sphodra. 11x in NT. From sphodros (exceeding, very much, all out, violent). This is exceedingly, greatly, deeply. This is going all out, with total effort, done to the fullest extent.
XXIX “distressed” = lupeo. From lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.
XXX “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
XXXI “surely not” = meti. 17x in NT. From me (not, neither, never; rules out conditional statements and their implications) + tis (someone, anyone, anything). This is asking a question when you expect the answer to be no. It is if not, surely no. But it also keeps a small possibility floating – but could it be?
XXXII “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

23 He answered, “The one who has dippedXXXIII his handXXXIV into the bowlXXXV with me will betray me. 

Notes on verse 23

XXXIII “dipped” = embapto. 2x in NT– both of the disciple who betrays Jesus in Mt 26:23 & Mk 14:20. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + bapto (to dip, dye, fully cover with liquid). This is to dip into, to touch liquid. This shares a root with “baptize.”
XXXIV “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
XXXV “bowl” = trublion. 2x in NT– both in this and the parallel in Mark 14. This is bowl, deep dish, or platter.

24 XXXVIThe SonXXXVII of ManXXXVIII goes as it is writtenXXXIX of him,

Notes on verse 24a

XXXVI {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXXVII “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XXXVIII “Man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XXXIX “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.

but woeXL to that oneXLI by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been betterXLII for that oneXLIII not to have been born.”XLIV 

Notes on verse 24b

XL “woe” = ouai. This is alas or woe to show grief or to denounce something.
XLI “one” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v24. See note XXXVIII above.
XLII “better” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
XLIII “one” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v24. See note XXXVIII above.
XLIV “born” = gennao. Related to “was” in v20. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note XXI above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.

25 Judas,XLV who betrayed him, said, “Surely not I, Rabbi?”XLVI

He replied, “You have said so.”

26 While they were eating,XLVII Jesus tookXLVIII a loaf of bread,XLIX

Notes on verses 25-26a

XLV “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
XLVI “Rabbi” = rhabbi. 15x in NT– 8x in the Gospel of John. From Hebrew rab (chief); from rabab (to be many, increase, multiply). This is a title of respect for a teacher-scholar. Literally, it means great one or honorable sir. It can also be understood as my master or my teacher.
XLVII “eating” = esthio. Same as “eating” in v21. See note XXIV above.
XLVIII “took” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XLIX “bread” = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.

and after blessingL it he brokeLI it, gaveLII it to the disciples, and said, “Take, eat;LIII this is my body.”LIV 

Notes on verse 26b

L “blessing” = eulogeo. Related to “saying” in v17. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note VI above)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
LI “broke” = klao. 14x in NT. This is to break, to break in pieces as one breaks bread.
LII “gave” = didomi. Related to “betray” in v21. See note XXVII above.
LIII “eat” = phago. Same as “eat” in v17. See note IX above.
LIV “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.

27 Then he took a cup,LV and after giving thanksLVI he gave it to them, saying, “DrinkLVII from it, allLVIII of you; 

Notes on verse 27

LV “cup” = poterion. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is a drinking vessel. Figuratively, it can refer to one’s lot, to fate, or to what God has in store for you.
LVI “giving thanks” = eucharisteo. Related to “blessing” in v26. From eu (see note L above) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards)}. This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.
LVII “drink” = pino. Related to “cup” in v27. See note LV above.
LVIII “all” = pas. This is all or every.

28 for this is my bloodLIX of the covenant,LX which is poured outLXI

Notes on verse 28a

LIX “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
LX “covenant” = diatheke. From diatithemi (to place separately – to make a will or covenant; this is arranging ahead of time how things will be accomplished); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is a will, covenant, contract, or agreement.
LXI “poured out” = ekcheo. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (to pour). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.

for manyLXII for the forgivenessLXIII of sins.LXIV 

Notes on verse 28b

LXII “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
LXIII “forgiveness” = aphesis. 17x in NT. From aphiemi (to send away, release, abandon, lay aside, forgive); {from apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send, to go)}. This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.
LXIV “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

29 I tell you, I will never again drink of this fruitLXV of the vineLXVI until that dayLXVII when I drink it newLXVIII with you in my Father’sLXIX kingdom.”LXX

Notes on verse 29

LXV “fruit” = gennema. Related to “was” in v20 & “born” in v24. 8x in NT. From gennao (see note XLIV above). This is offspring, child, fruit, brood, or produce in a literal or figurative sense.
LXVI “vine” = ampelos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from the base of amphoteros (both, all); {from amphi (around) + halon (the threshing floor where grain is rolled to separate from the chaff); {from halos (threshing floor); probably from helisso (to roll up, coil, wrap)}}. This is vine or grapevine as that which coils around.
LXVII “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
LXVIII “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
LXIX “Father’s” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
LXX “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.

30 When they had sung the hymn,LXXI they went outLXXII to the MountLXXIII of Olives.LXXIV

Notes on verse 30

LXXI “sung the hymn” = humneo. 4x in NT. From humno (hymn, song to praise God, religious ode; also used in other faiths as songs that celebrated their gods, heroes, etc.); from hudeo (to celebrate). This is singing a hymn or religious ode, to praise or celebrate God.
LXXII “went out” = exerchomai. Related to “came” in v17. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
LXXIII “Mount” = oros. Related to “bread” in v26. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (see note XLIX above). This is mountain or hill.
LXXIV “Olives” = elaia. 15x in NT. This is olive or olive tree. Sometimes, it refers to the chosen people.

31 Then Jesus said to them, “You will all become desertersLXXV because of me this night; for it is written

‘I will strikeLXXVI the shepherd,LXXVII

Notes on verse 31a

LXXV “become deserters” = skandalizo. From skandalon (the bait or portion of the trap that closes down on the victim – the trap’s trigger; a stumbling block, offense, or cause for error; something that sets into motion a negative cause and effect; something that causes one to stumble); perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is to put a stumbling block in someone’s way. Figuratively, causing someone to sin or preventing them from good action. It can also mean to shock or offend. Literally, this is falling into a trap or tripping someone up. So, here, enticing someone to sin or apostasy.
LXXVI “strike” = patasso. 10x in NT. Perhaps from paio (to strike, hit, sting). This can be strike or hit in a gentle sense like tapping someone on the side (Acts 12:7) or the beating of the heart. It can also be violent as in the disciples striking with the sword when Jesus is arrested (Mt 26:31 & Mk 22:49-50). It can also refer to slaying or death (Acts 7:24; Acts 12:23).
LXXVII “shepherd” = poimen. 18x in NT. This is shepherd or pastor – one who protects. It is also used figuratively to mean ruler. 

    and the sheepLXXVIII of the flockLXXIX will be scattered.’LXXX

Notes on verse 31b

LXXVIII “sheep” = probaton. Related to “kingdom” in v29. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (see note LXX above)}}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
LXXIX “flock” = poimne. Related to “shepherd” in v31. 5x in NT. Probably from poimen (see note LXXVII above). This is flock or fold in a literal or figurative sense – usually sheep or goats.
LXXX “scattered” = diaskorpizo. 9x in NT. From dia (through, on account of, across, thoroughly) + skorpizo (to scatter, distribute, dissipate, waste). This is to separate or disperse. Figuratively, it can be squander or waste.

32 But after I am raised up,LXXXI I will go aheadLXXXII of you to Galilee.”LXXXIII 

33 PeterLXXXIV said to him, “Though all become deserters because of you, I will never desert you.” 

Notes on verses 32-33

LXXXI “raised up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
LXXXII “go ahead” = proago. Related to “go” in v18. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note XI above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
LXXXIII “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
LXXXIV “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.

34 Jesus saidLXXXV to him, “Truly I tell you, this very night, before the cockLXXXVI crows,LXXXVII you will denyLXXXVIII me three times.”LXXXIX 

Notes on verse 34

LXXXV “said” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.
LXXXVI “cock” = alektor. 12x in NT. Perhaps from aleko (to ward off). This is a cock or rooster.
LXXXVII “crows” = phoneo. Related to “said” in v34. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi (see note LXXXV above) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
LXXXVIII “deny” = aparneomai. 11x in NT– 8x of Peter’s denial of Jesus, 2x “let them deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me” (Mt 16:24 & Mk 8:34), 1x “whoever denies me before others will be denied before the angels of God” (Lk 12:9). From apo (from, away from) + arneomai (to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict); {from a (not) + rheo (say, speak of)}. This is a strong denial or rejection – utter denial, disowning, or repudiation.
LXXXIX “three times” = tris. 12x in NT. From treis (three). This is three times.

35 Peter said to him, “Even though I mustXC dieXCI with you, I will not deny you.” And so said all the disciples.

36 Then Jesus wentXCII with them to a placeXCIII calledXCIV Gethsemane;XCV

Notes on verses 35-36a

XC “must” = deo. To tie, bind, compel, put in chains. This is to bind in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean declaring something unlawful.
XCI “die” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
XCII “went” = erchomai. Related to “came” in v17 & “went out” in v30. See note IV above.
XCIII “place” = chorion. 10x in NT. From chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is place, estate, possession, piece of ground, property.
XCIV “called” = lego. Same as “saying” in v17. See note VI above.
XCV “Gethsemane” = Gethsemani. 2x in NT. From Hebrew gath (wine press); {perhaps from nagan (to strike a stringed instrument, to pluck or play it)} + shemen (fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume; figurative for fertile, lavish, rich); {from shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat)}. This is Gethsemane, meaning oil-press, an olive orchard.

and he said to his disciples, “SitXCVI here while I goXCVII over there and pray.”XCVIII 

Notes on verse 36b

XCVI “sit” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
XCVII “go” = aperchomai. Related to “came” in v17 & “went out” in v30 & “went” in v36. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
XCVIII “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.

37 He took withXCIX him Peter and the twoC sons of Zebedee,CI and began to be grievedCII and agitated.CIII 

Notes on verse 37

XCIX “took with” = paralambano. Related to “took” in v26. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (see note XLVIII above). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
C “two” = duo. Related to “twelve” in v20. See note XXIII above.
CI “Zebedee” = Zebedaios. Related to “Jesus” in v17. 12x in NT. From Hebrew zebadyah (Zebadiah, “The Lord has bestowed”); {from Zabad (to bestow, confer, endure) + Yah (God, the Lord; a shortening of the sacred name of the God of Israel); {from YHVH (see note V above)}}. This is Zebedee, meaning “the Lord has bestowed.”
CII “grieved” = lupeo. Same as “distressed” in v22. See note XXIX above.
CIII “agitated” = ademoneo. 3x in NT. Perhaps from adeo (to be full to the point of loathing). This is being distressed, troubled, fearful, lacking courage.

38 Then he said to them, “ICIV am deeply grieved,CV even to death;CVI remainCVII here, and stay awakeCVIII with me.” 

Notes on verse 38

CIV “I” = psuche. Literally, “my soul.” From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CV “deeply grieved” = perilupos. Related to “distressed” in v22. 5x in NT– including 2x when Jesus prays in Gethsemane in Matthew and Mark. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + lupe (see note XXIX above). This is very sorrowful, deeply grieved.
CVI “death” = thanatos. Related to “die” in v35. From thnesko (see note XCI above). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CVII “remain” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
CVIII “stay awake” = gregoreo. Related to “raised up” in v32. From egeiro (see note LXXXI above). This is to be or stay awake, watch. Figuratively, it can be alertness or vigilance.

39 And goingCIX a littleCX farther, he threwCXI himselfCXII on the ground and prayed, “My Father, if it is possible,CXIII let this cup passCXIV from me; yet not what I want but what you want.” 

Notes on verse 39

CIX “going” = proerchomai. Related to “came” in v17 & “went out” in v30 & “went” and “go” in v36. 9x in NT. From pro (before, earlier, above) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to go before, advance. It is ahead of in position or in time.
CX “little” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
CXI “threw” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.
CXII “himself” = prosopon. Literally, “his face.” Related to “man” in v24. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note XXXVIII above)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
CXIII “possible” = dunatos. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
CXIV “pass” = parerchomai. Related to “came” in v17 & “went out” in v30 & “went” and “go” in v36 & “going” in v39. From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.

40 Then he came to the disciples and foundCXV them sleeping;CXVI and he said to Peter, “So, couldCXVII you not stay awake with me one hour?CXVIII 

Notes on verse 40

CXV “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CXVI “sleeping” = katheudo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + heudo (to sleep). This is to settle down to rest, to sleep, fall asleep in a literal or figurative sense.
CXVII “could” = ischuo. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); {from is (strength, power, ability – literal or figurative) + echo (to have, hold, possess)}. This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.
CXVIII “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.

41 Stay awake and pray that you may not comeCXIX into the time of trial;CXX the spiritCXXI indeedCXXII

Notes on verse 41a

CXIX “come” = eiserchomai. Related to “came” in v17 & “went out” in v30 & “went” and “go” in v36 & “going” and “pass” in v39. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CXX “time of trial” = peirasmos. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.
CXXI “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CXXII “indeed” = men. Same as {untranslated} in v24. See note XXXVI above.

is willing,CXXIII but the fleshCXXIV is weak.”CXXV 

Notes on verse 41b

CXXIII “willing” = prothumos. 3x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + thumos (passion, actions that stem from passion or impulse; can be rage, indignation); {from thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general)}. This is willing, eager, ready, enthusiastic, free from resistance. It can also be predisposed, willing, or generous from one’s own impulse.
CXXIV “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
CXXV “weak” = asthenes. From a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}. This is without strength so weak, sick, helpless, frail, feeble. It can also be unimpressive or impotent. It can be used for physical or moral weakness.

42 Again he went awayCXXVI for the second timeCXXVII and prayed, “My Father, if this cannotCXXVIII pass unless I drink it, your willCXXIX be done.”CXXX 

Notes on verse 42

CXXVI “went away” = aperchomai. Same as “go” in v36. See note XCVII above.
CXXVII “second time” = deuteros. Related to “twelve” in v20 & “two” in v37. From duo (see note XXIII above). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See
CXXVIII “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Dunamai is related to “possible” in v39. See note CXIII above.
CXXIX “will” = thelema. From thelo (to desire, wise, will, intend). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
CXXX “be done” = ginomai. Same as “was” in v20. See note XXI above.

43 Again he came and found them sleeping, for their eyesCXXXI were heavy.CXXXII 44 So leavingCXXXIII them again, he went away and prayed for the third time,CXXXIV saying the same words.CXXXV 

Notes on verses 43-44

CXXXI “eyes” = ophthalmos. Related to “man” in v24 & {untranslated} in v39. From optanomai (see note XXXVIII above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
CXXXII “heavy” = bareo. Related to “kingdom” in v29 & “sheep” in v31. 6x in NT. From barus (heavy, burdensome; figuratively, violent, oppressive; that which presses down on someone so that they cannot move freely); from the same as baros (weight, burden in a literal or figurative sense; authority); probably from the same as basis (see note LXX above). This is heavy, press, weigh down, or burden.
CXXXIII “leaving” = aphiemi. Related to “forgiveness” in v28. See note LXIII above.
CXXXIV “third time” = tritos. Related to “three times” in v34. From treis (see note LXXXIX above). This is third.
CXXXV “words” = logos. Related to “saying” in v17 & “blessing” in v26. From lego (see note VI above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

45 Then he came to the disciples and said to them, “Are you stillCXXXVI sleeping and taking your rest?CXXXVII See,CXXXVIII the hour is at hand,CXXXIX

Notes on verse 45a

CXXXVI “still” = loipon. 13x in NT. From loipos (the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue); from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is what remains, from now on, finally.
CXXXVII “taking…rest” = anapauo. 12x in NT– including Matthew 11:28 “come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest.” From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + pauo (to stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, come to an end). This is a break from work, which implies being refreshed. It denotes that rest that one gets once a necessary task is finished.
CXXXVIII “see” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CXXXIX “is at hand” = eggizo. Related to “near” in v18. From eggus (see note XVII above). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.

and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.CXL 46 Get up,CXLI let us be going.CXLII See, my betrayer is at hand.”

47 While he was still speaking,CXLIII Judas, one of the twelve, arrived;CXLIV with him was a largeCXLV crowdCXLVI

Notes on verses 45b-47a

CXL “sinners” = hamartolos. Related to “sins” in v28. From hamartano (see note LXIV above). This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.
CXLI “get up” = egeiro. Same as “raised up” in v32. See note LXXXI above.
CXLII “going” = ago. Related to “go” in v18 & “go ahead” in v32. See note XI above.
CXLIII {untranslated} = idou. Same as “see” in v45. See note CXXXVIII above.
CXLIV “arrived” = erchomai. Same as “went” in v36. See note XCII above.
CXLV “large” = polus. Same as “many” in v28. See note LXII above.
CXLVI “crowd” = ochlos. Related to “could” in v40. Perhaps from echo (see note CXVII above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.

with swordsCXLVII and clubs,CXLVIII from the chief priestsCXLIX and the eldersCL of the people.CLI 

Notes on verse 47b

CXLVII “swords” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.
CXLVIII “clubs” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.
CXLIX “chief priests” = archiereus. Related to “began” in v22. From archo (see note XXX above) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
CL “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
CLI “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

48 Now the betrayer had given them a sign,CLII saying, “The one I will kissCLIII is the man; arrestCLIV him.” 

Notes on verse 48

CLII “sign” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
CLIII “kiss” = phileo. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person). This is friendship love and fondness with personal attachment.
CLIV “arrest” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.

49 At onceCLV he came upCLVI to Jesus and said, “Greetings,CLVII Rabbi!” and kissedCLVIII him. 

Notes on verse 49

CLV “at once” = eutheos. Related to “blessing” in v26 & “giving thanks” in v27 & “covenant” in v28. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (see note L above) + tithemi (see note LX above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
CLVI “came up” = proserchomai. Same as “came” in v17. See note IV above.
CLVII “greetings” = chairo. Related to “giving thanks” in v27. See note LVI above.
CLVIII “kissed” = kataphileo. Related to “kiss” in v48. 6x in NT– 2x of Judas’s betrayal, 2x of the woman who washes Jesus’s feet and kisses them (Lk 7:38, 45), 1x when the father kisses the prodigal son (Lk 15:20), and 1x when Paul kisses the Ephesian elders goodbye (Acts 20:37). From kata (down, against, according to) + phileo (see note CLIII above)}. This is kissing with great emotion or kissing repeatedly, earnestly, affectionately.

50 Jesus said to him, “Friend,CLIX do what you are here to do.”CLX Then they came and laidCLXI hands on Jesus and arrested him. 

Notes on verse 50

CLIX “friend” = hetairos. 3x in NT. From etes (cousin or member of one’s clan). This is a friend, companion, comrade. It is a friend like one’s own family.
CLX “are here to do” = pareimi. Related to “is” in v18. From para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + eimi (see note XVI above). This is to be present, have come
CLXI “laid” = epiballo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to place on, fall, lay, throw over, think about, waves crashing, emotions emerging.

51 Suddenly,CLXII one of those with Jesus putCLXIII his hand on his sword, drewCLXIV it,

Notes on verse 51a

CLXII “suddenly” = idou. Same as “see” in v45. See note CXXXVIII above.
CLXIII “put” = ekteino. 16x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to stretch out, reach, lay hands on. Can also be used for casting an anchor.
CLXIV “drew” = apospao. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + spao (to pull or draw like one draws a sword). This is to draw forth, part, draw away, pull out a sword. Figuratively, to withdraw or retire.

and struck the slaveCLXV of the high priest, cutting offCLXVI his ear.CLXVII 

Notes on verse 51b

CLXV “slave” = doulos. Related to “must” in v35. Perhaps from deo (see note XC above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
CLXVI “cutting off” = aphaireo. Related to “bread” in v26 & “Mount” in v30. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (see note XLIX above)}. This is remove, take away, cut in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXVII “ear” = otion. 5x in NT. From ous (ear; figuratively, hearing). This is ear or it might refer to the earlobe.

52 Then Jesus said to him, “Put your sword backCLXVIII into its place;CLXIX for all who take the sword will perishCLXX by the sword. 

Notes on verse 52

CLXVIII “put…back” = apostrepho. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn away from so it could be to leave, to reject, remove, or even desert. It places a focus on one’s personal commitment to this turning back and rejecting.
CLXIX “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
CLXX “perish” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

53 Do you thinkCLXXI that I cannot appealCLXXII to my Father, and he will at once sendCLXXIII me

Notes on verse 53a

CLXXI “think” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
CLXXII “appeal” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
CLXXIII “send” = paristemi. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.

more thanCLXXIV twelve legionsCLXXV of angels?CLXXVI 

Notes on verse 53b

CLXXIV “more than” = pleion. Related to “many” in v28 & “yet” in v39. From polus (see note LXII above). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
CLXXV “legions” = legion. 4x in NT. From Latin legio (legion); from lego (to choose, collect, gather). This is a division in the army of Rome, which would have had around 6,000 infantry and also included cavalry on top of that. In scripture, often used figuratively for a large number.
CLXXVI “angels” = aggelos. Related to “go” in v18 & “go ahead” in v32 & “going” in v46. Probably from ago (see note XI above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.

54 But how then would the scripturesCLXXVII be fulfilled,CLXXVIII which say it must happenCLXXIX in this way?” 

Notes on verse 54

CLXXVII “scriptures” = graphe. Related to “written” in v24. From grapho (see note XXXIX above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
CLXXVIII “be fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
CLXXIX “happen” = ginomai. Same as “was” in v20. See note XXI above.

55 At that hour Jesus said to the crowds, “Have you come out with swords and clubs to arrestCLXXX me as though I were a bandit?CLXXXI Day after day I satCLXXXII in the templeCLXXXIII teaching,CLXXXIV and you did not arrestCLXXXV me. 

Notes on verse 55

CLXXX “arrest” = sullambano. Related to “took” in v26 & “took with” in v37. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (see note XLVIII above). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arrest or take hold of someone.
CLXXXI “bandit” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barabbas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.
CLXXXII “sat” = kathezomai. Related to “sit” in v36. 7x in NT. See note XCVI above.
CLXXXIII “temple” = hieron. Related to “chief priests” in v47. From hieros (see note CXLIX above). This is the word for temple.
CLXXXIV “teaching” = didasko. Related to “teacher” in v18. See note XIV above.
CLXXXV “arrest” = krateo. Same as “arrest” in v48. See note CLIV above.

56 But allCLXXXVI this has taken place,CLXXXVII so that the scriptures of the prophetsCLXXXVIII may be fulfilled.” Then all the disciples desertedCLXXXIX him and fled.CXC

Notes on verse 56

CLXXXVI “all” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CLXXXVII “taken place” = ginomai. Same as “was” in v20. See note XXI above.
CLXXXVIII “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “said” and “crows” in v34. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note LXXXV above). This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CLXXXIX “deserted” = aphiemi. Same as “leaving” in v44. See note CXXXIII above.
CXC “fled” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.

Image credit: “Bellingham, Washington.. The Last Supper..” Photo by iwona_kellie, 2010.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply