Matthew 27

Matthew 27


When morningI came,II all the chief priestsIII and the eldersIV of the peopleV

Notes on verse 1a

I “morning” = proia. 2x in NT. From proios (during early morning); from proi (early, at dawn; can imply the watch of the guard at dawn); from pro (before, earlier then, ahead). This is early in the morning or at dawn.
II “came” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
III “chief priests” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
IV “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
V “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

conferredVI together against JesusVII in order to bring about his death.VIII 

Notes on verse 1b

VI “conferred” = sumboulion + lambano. Literally “took counsel.” 8x in NT. Sumboulion is from souboulos (counselor or adviser in an official capacity); {from sun (with, together with) + boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}}. This is to counsel and so could be used for a group of advisers. It could also be to plot or conspire together. Abstractly, it could refer to advice or resolutions.
VII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
VIII “bring about…death” = thanatoo. 11x in NT. From thanatos (death, whether literal or spiritual; also something fatal); from thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to kill in a literal or figurative sense – subdue, mortify, be apart from.

They boundIX him, led him away,X and handed him overXI to PilateXII the governor.XIII

Notes on verse 2

IX “bound” = deo. To tie, bind, compel, put in chains. This is to bind in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean declaring something unlawful.
X “led…away” = apago. 16x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go). This is to lead away, take away, or bring. Figuratively, it can refer to being led astray or put to death.
XI “handed…over” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
XII “Pilate” = Pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See
XIII “governor” = hegemon. Related to “led…away” in v2. From hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); from ago (see note X above). This is a leader in general, but also specifically a governor or commander. This is where “hegemony” comes from.

3 When Judas,XIV his betrayer,XV sawXVI that Jesus was condemned,XVII he repentedXVIII and brought backXIX the thirty pieces of silverXX to the chief priests and the elders. 

Notes on verse 3

XIV “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
XV “betrayer” = paradidomi. Same as “handed…over” in v2. See note XI above.
XVI “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XVII “condemned” = katakrino. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn. This is a decisive judgment of guilt. It can also be to damn someone.
XVIII “repented” = metamelomai. 6x in NT. From meta (with, among, behind, beyond) + melo (to think about something, take an interest; to care or worry about something). This is to regret por repent. It is changing your mind – generally used in a positive sense. Often, it means experiencing an emotion that causes you to change your mind such that you care afterwards.
XIX “brought back” = strepho. From trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn). This is to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one.
XX “pieces of silver” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); from argos (shining). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.

He said, “I have sinnedXXI by betraying innocentXXII blood.”XXIII

But they said, “What is that to us? See to it yourself.” 

Notes on verse 4

XXI “sinned” = hamartano. From a (not) + meros (a part or share, portion); {from meiromai (to get one’s allotment or portion)}. This term also used of archers not hitting their targets. Literally, it means not getting your share or to miss the mark. Figuratively, it meant to do wrong or to sin.
XXII “innocent” = athoos. 2x in NT– both in Mt 27. From a (not) + thoe (penalty). Literally, this is unpunished – hence guiltless.
XXIII “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).

5 Throwing downXXIV the pieces of silver in the temple,XXV he departed;XXVI and he went and hanged himself.XXVII 

Notes on verse 5

XXIV “throwing down” = rhipto. 7x in NT. Perhaps related to rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is to cast, toss fling, or disperse. It is a quick toss in contrast to another word ballo, intentional hurling, and teino (stretching outward).
XXV “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
XXVI “departed” = anachoreo. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + choreo (to make space, receive, have room for, progress, depart so as to make room; figuratively, living open-heartedly); {from choros (a particular space or place); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn)}.  This is to withdraw, depart, retire, or leave. It can give a sense of seeking safety from harm or of retiring.
XXVII “hanged” = apagcho. 1x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + agcho (to strangle or press into); {related to agkale (an arm that is bend to receive a weight or load); from agkos (a bend or ache)}. This is to choke or hang yourself.

6 But the chief priests, taking the pieces of silver, said, “It is not lawfulXXVIII to putXXIX them into the treasury,XXX since they are blood money.”XXXI 

Notes on verse 6

XXVIII “lawful” = exesti. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
XXIX “put” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
XXX “treasury” = korban. 2x in NT. From Hebrew qorban (offering brought to the altar); from qarab (to come near, offer, make ready). This is a gift or offering to God – something that has been dedicated to God. Offerings made to the temple treasury were dedicated to God and so this word came to be used to refer to the temple treasury as well (as the place that held all these devoted gifts).
XXXI “money” = time. From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value). This has to do with worth or something’s perceived value. Literally, it means price, but figuratively, it means the honor or value one sees in someone or something else. It can be esteem or dignity. It can also mean precious or valuables.

After conferring together, they used them to buyXXXII the potter’sXXXIII fieldXXXIV as a place to buryXXXV foreigners.XXXVI For this reason that field has been calledXXXVII the Field of Blood to this day. 

Notes on verses 7-8

XXXII “buy” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.
XXXIII “potter’s” = kerameus. 3x in NT. From keramos (earthenware, a tile, a roof or awning); from kerannumi (to mix or pour out a drink); from kerao (to mix). This is a potter, one who uses clay mixed with water. It shares a root with the word “ceramic.”
XXXIV “field” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”
XXXV “place to bury” = taphe. 1x in NT. From thapto (to bury, hold a funeral). This is burial, whether burying itself or the place why the burial occurs.
XXXVI “foreigners” = xenos. 14x in NT – including 5x in Matthew 25 of the judgment of the nations “I was a stranger and you welcomed me.” This is foreign or foreigner, an alien or guest. It could also be something new, novel, or strange. This is where the word “xenophobia” comes from.
XXXVII “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.

Then was fulfilledXXXVIII what had been spoken through the prophetXXXIX Jeremiah,XL 

Notes on verse 9a

XXXVIII “fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
XXXIX “prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
XL “Jeremiah” = Ieremias. Related to “Jesus” in v1. 3x in NT. From Hebrew yirmeyah (Jeremiah, “the Lord loosens” or “the Lord will rise”); {from the same as remiyya (slack, idle, lazy, negligent) + Yah (a shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note VII above)}. This is Jeremiah.

“And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the priceXLI of the one on whom a price had been set,XLII on whom some of the peopleXLIII of IsraelXLIV had set a price, 

Notes on verse 9b

XLI “price” = time. Same as “money” in v6. See note XXXI above.
XLII “on whom a price had been set” = timao. Related to “money” in v6. From time (see note XXXI above). Properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor.
XLIII “people” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XLIV “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

10 and they gaveXLV them for the potter’s field, as the LordXLVI commandedXLVII me.”

Notes on verse 10

XLV “gave” = didomi. Related to “handed…over” in v2. See note XI above.
XLVI “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XLVII “commanded” = suntasso. 3x in NT. From sun (with together with) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to direct, arrange, prescribe, or instruct.

11 Now Jesus stoodXLVIII before the governor; and the governor askedXLIX him, “Are you the KingL of the Jews?”LI

Jesus said,LII “You say so.” 

12 But when he was accusedLIII by the chief priests and elders, he did not answer. 

Notes on verses 11-12

XLVIII “stood” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
XLIX “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
L “King” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
LI “Jews” = Ioudaios. Related to “Judas” in v3. From Ioudas (see note XIV above). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
LII “said” = phemi. Related to “prophet” in v9. See note XXXIX above.
LIII “accused” = kategoreo. Perhaps related to “buy” in v7. From kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR {from kata (see above) + agora (see note XXXII above). This is to accuse, charge, or prosecute. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.

13 Then Pilate said to him, “Do you not hearLIV how many accusations they make againstLV you?” 14 But he gave him no answer, not even to a single charge,LVI so that the governor was greatly amazed.LVII

Notes on verses 13-14

LIV “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LV “accusations…make against” = katamartureo. 3x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + martureo (to testify, give evidence; testify in a literal or figurative sense); {from martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr)}. This is testify or bear witness against.
LVI “charge” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
LVII “amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.

15 Now at the festivalLVIII the governor was accustomedLIX to releaseLX a prisonerLXI for the crowd, anyone whom they wanted.LXII 

Notes on verse 15

LVIII “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
LIX “accustomed” = etho. 4x in NT. This is acting according to habit or tradition.
LX “release” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
LXI “prisoner” = desmios. Related to “bound” in v2. 17x in NT. From desomon (bond, chain, imprisonment, ligament, infirmity); from deo (see note IX above). This is the one who is bound i.e. a prisoner or captive.
LXII “wanted” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

16 At that time they had a notoriousLXIII prisoner, called Jesus Barabbas.LXIV 17 So after they had gathered,LXV Pilate said to them, “Whom do you want me to release for you, Jesus Barabbas or Jesus who is called the Messiah?”LXVI 18 For he realizedLXVII that it was out of jealousyLXVIII that they had handed him over. 

Notes on verses 16-18

LXIII “notorious” = episemos. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, at, what is fitting) + the same as semaino (to signify, communicate, give a sign); {from sema (a sign or mark)}. Properly, this would be remarkable i.e. prominent/eminent or notorious/conspicuous.
LXIV “Barabbas” = Barabbas. 11x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son literal or figurative, age); {corresponding to Hebrew ben (son literal or figurative, subject, age)} + Aramaic abba (father) {from Aramaic ab (father); corresponding to Hebrew ab (father literal or figurative – ancestor, chief, grandfather, etc.)}. This is Barabbas, meaning son of the father.
LXV “gathered” = sunago. Related to “led…away” in v2 & “governor” in v2. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note X above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
LXVI “Messiah” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
LXVII “realized” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
LXVIII “jealousy” = phthonos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); from phthio (perish, waste away). This is jealousy, spite, or ill-will. It can also be feeling glad when misfortune befalls another (akin to Schadenfreude).

19 While he was sittingLXIX on the judgment seat,LXX his wifeLXXI sent wordLXXII to him,

Notes on verse 19a

LXIX “siting” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
LXX “judgment seat” = bema. Perhaps related to “king” in v11. 12x in NT. From the same as basis (see note L above). This is a place that is raised and has steps such as where a tribunal would meet to mete out justice. It also refers literally to the chair from which such justice would come whether for reward or punishment. This word was borrowed into Jewish religious practice from Byzantine Greek (from the same root) to describe the raised area of the synagogue from which the Torah was proclaimed – the bima. See
LXXI “wife” = gune. Related to “came” in v1. Perhaps from ginomai (see note II above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
LXXII “sent word” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

“Have nothing to do with that innocentLXXIII man, for today I have sufferedLXXIV a great dealLXXV because of a dreamLXXVI about him.” 

Notes on verse 19b

LXXIII “innocent” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
LXXIV “suffered” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
LXXV “great deal” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
LXXVI “dream” = onar. 6x in NT– 4x of Joseph, father of Jesus, dreaming; 1x of the Wise Men dreaming, and 1x of Pilate’s wife. This is a dream as part of sleep and not a daydream.

20 Now the chief priests and the elders persuadedLXXVII the crowds to ask forLXXVIII Barabbas and to have Jesus killed.LXXIX 

21 The governor again said to them, “Which of the two do you want me to release for you?”

And they said, “Barabbas.” 

22 Pilate said to them, “Then what should I do with Jesus who is called the Messiah?” 

All of them said, “Let him be crucified!”LXXX 

Notes on verses 20-22

LXXVII “persuaded” = peitho. This is to have confidence, to urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust. It is the root from which the Greek word for faith is drawn (pistis).
LXXVIII “ask for” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
LXXIX “killed” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
LXXX “crucified” = stauroo. Related to “stood” in v11 & “sent word” in v19. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (see note XLVIII above). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.

23 Then he asked,LXXXI “Why, what evilLXXXII has he done?”

But they shoutedLXXXIII all the more,LXXXIV “Let him be crucified!”

Notes on verse 23

LXXXI “asked” = phemi. Same as “said” in v11. See note LII above.
LXXXII “evil” = kakos. This is bad, evil, harm, ill. It is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm. It refers to deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character. Can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue.
LXXXIII “shouted” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
LXXXIV “all the more” = perissos. 17x in NT. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundantly, exceedingly, far more, or all the more. This is going beyond what is anticipated or past the upper limit.

24 So when Pilate saw that he could doLXXXV nothing, but ratherLXXXVI that a riotLXXXVII was beginning,LXXXVIII

Notes on verse 24a

LXXXV “could do” = opheleo. 15x in NT. From ophelos (help, gain, profit); from ophello (to heap up or increase). This is to help, benefit, do good, or be useful.
LXXXVI “rather” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
LXXXVII “riot” = thorubos. 7x in NT. From the same as thoreo (to be troubled, agitated, alarmed, be unsettled, be frightened); from throos (clamor, noise) or from threomai (to wail). This is an uproar, noise, outcry, riot, disturbance, trouble. It can also be used figuratively for a very emotional wailing or hysteria. It is a commotion that leads to panic or terror.
LXXVIII “beginning” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v1. See note II above.

he took some water and washedLXXXIX his handsXC before the crowd, saying, “I am innocentXCI of this man’s blood; see to it yourselves.” 

25 Then the people as a whole answered, “His blood be on us and on our children!”XCII 26 So he released Barabbas for them; and after floggingXCIII Jesus, he handed him over to be crucified.

Notes on verses 24b-26

LXXXIX “washed” = aponipto. 1x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + nipto (to wash, particularly the hands, feet, or face; often used for ceremonial or ritual ablution as when Jesus washes the disciples’ feet in John 13 and during debates about the tradition of the elders as in Matthew 15 and Mark 7); {from nizo (to cleanse)}. This is to wash off.
XC “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
XCI “innocent” = athoos. Same as “innocent” in v4. See note XXII above.
XCII “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
XCIII “flogging” = phragelloo. 2x in NT. This is to whip or scourge – a whipping as a punishment given in public.

27 Then the soldiersXCIV of the governor took Jesus into the governor’s headquarters,XCV and they gathered the wholeXCVI cohortXCVII around him.

Notes on verse 27

XCIV “soldiers” = stratiotes. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.
XCV “governor’s headquarters” = praitorion. 8x in NT. From Latin praetorium (headquarters, general’s tent, villa, place where the governor lives); from prator (leader, chief, president); from pareeo (to lead, go before). This is praetorium or preatorian guard. It is the place where the governor lives or the place where the praetorian guard of Rome lived. It could also mean courtroom. See
XCVI “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
XCVII “cohort” = speira. 7x in NT. From Latin spira (something wound up like a coil or twist, the base of a column, a hair braid, etc.); from Greek speira (a twist or wreath); from Proto-Indo-European *sper- (to twist, turn). This is a group of soldiers or military guard. Properly, this is something wound up. Figuratively, it refers to a group of men. Thus, a tenth of a legion. Also used for Levitical janitors. This is where the word “spiral” comes from. See

28 They strippedXCVIII him and put a scarletXCIX robeC onCI him, 

Notes on verse 28

XCVIII “stripped” = ekduo. 6x in NT– 3x Jesus being stripped before crucifixion, 2x in 2 Corinthians 5:3-4 as a metaphor for death – being stripped of this earthly tent, & 1x in Parable of the Good Samaritan when the man is attacked. From ek (from, from out of) + duo (to sink). This is to strip off or take off.
XCIX “scarlet” = kokkinos. 6x in NT. From kokkos (kernel, seed). This is scarlet or cloth that is dyed scarlet from a dye made from an insect.
C “robe” = chlamus. 2x in NT– both in Matthew 27. This is a chalmys – a sort robe or cloak that soldiers wore as well as magistrates and kings. It is a garment that denotes dignity or a particular office that is worn on top of the tunic.
CI “put…on” = peritithemi. 8x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to place around i.e. to clothe. Figuratively, it can mean to bestow or to present.

29 and after twistingCII some thornsCIII into a crown,CIV they putCV it on his head.CVI

Notes on verse 29a

CII “twisting” = pleko. 3x in NT – all in Gospel parallels of soldiers mocking Jesus. This is to twist, braid, or weave together.
CIII “thorns” = akantha. 14x in NT. From akmen (even now, still yet); from the same as akmazo (ripe, to be vigorous); from akme (point, edge); related to ake (a point). This is thorn or thorn bush.
CIV “crown” = stephanos. 18x in NT. From stepho (to twine, encircle). This is something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland. Properly, this refers to the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win. It symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek. This is the word used for the crown that the saints in haven wear in, for example, Revelation 4:4.
CV “put” = epitithemi. Related to “put…on” in v28. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (see note CI above). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
CVI “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.

They put a reedCVII in his right handCVIII and knelt before him and mockedCIX him, saying, “Hail,CX King of the Jews!” 

Notes on verse 29b

CVII “reed” = kalamos. 12x in NT. This is a reed, whether the plant itself or a stem that is like the reed. It can also imply a staff, pen, or measuring rod.
CVIII “right hand” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
CIX “mocked” = empaizo. 13x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + paizo (to play like a child does – can include singing and dancing); {from pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting)}. This is to mock, ridicule, jeer.
CX “hail” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).

30 They spat on him, and took the reed and struckCXI him on the head. 31 After mocking him, they stripped him of the robe and put his own clothesCXII onCXIII him. Then they led him away to crucify him.

Notes on verses 30-31

CXI “struck” = tupto. 14x in NT. This is to strike, beat, or wound – generally with a stick or cudgel. It is hitting with repeated blows. So, it contrasts with paiso and patasso, which describe single blows by hand or weapon. Also contrast plesso (beating with a fist or hammer), rhapizo (to slap), and tugchaono (hitting accidentally). This word is hitting to punish. Figuratively, it can refer to being offended.
CXII “clothes” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
CXIII “put…on” = enduo. Related to “stripped” in v28. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + duno (to sink into, set like the sun); {from duo (see note XCVIII above)}. This is to put on as when one puts on clothes. It is the idea of sinking into one’s clothing.

32 As they went out, they came uponCXIV a manCXV from CyreneCXVI namedCXVII Simon;CXVIII

Notes on verse 32a

CXIV “came upon” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CXV “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CXVI “Cyrene” = Kurenaios. 6x in NT. From Kurene (Cyrene, a Greek mythological figure; perhaps meaning sovereign queen). This is from Cyrene. See
CXVII “named” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
CXVIII “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”

they compelledCXIX this man to carryCXX his cross.CXXI 

Notes on verse 32b

CXIX “compelled” = aggareuo. 3x in NT– 2x of Simon the Cyrene & 1x “if anyone forces you to go one mile, go also the second mile” from Matthew 5:41. From Persian, but compare Aramaic iggerah (a letter); corresponding to Hebrew iggereth (letter); from the same as Agur (hired, gathered, received from the sages); from agar (to gather or harvest). This means to impress into service, to force. It can also mean send someone on an errand, particularly as a courier or other public service.
CXX “carry” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
CXXI “cross” = stauros. Related to “stood” in v11 & “sent word” in v19 & “crucified” in v22. See note LXXXI above.

33 And when they came to a placeCXXII called GolgothaCXXIII (which means Place of a Skull),CXXIV 

Notes on verse 33

CXXII “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
CXXIII “Golgotha” = Golgotha. 3x in NT. From Aramaic golgolta (skull); from Hebrew gulgolet (skull, head; a census or poll that counts people by head); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Golgotha, skull. See &
CXXIV “Skull” = kranion. 4x in NT. From kara (the head) OR from the base of keras (horn or something horn-shaped; horn in a literal or figurative sense – that which prevails or a symbol of power). This is skull. It’s where we get the word “cranium” from.

34 they offeredCXXV him wineCXXVI to drink,CXXVII mixedCXXVIII with gall;CXXIX but when he tastedCXXX it, he wouldCXXXI not drink it. 

Notes on verse 34

CXXV “offered” = didomi. Same as “gave” in v10. See note XLV above.
CXXVI “wine” = oinos. Perhaps from Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is wine. It is where the word “oenophile” comes from.
CXXVII “drink” = pino. This is to drink, literally or figuratively.
CXXVIII “mixed” = mignumi. 4x in NT. This is to mix or mingle.
CXXIX “gall” = chole. 2x in NT. This is gall or bitter herbs. May be used figuratively to mean poison or bitterness.
CXXX “tasted” = geuomai. 15x in NT. This is to taste, which implies eating. It can be used figuratively to mean experience, whether positively or negatively.
CXXXI “would” = thelo. Same as “wanted” in v15. See note LXII above.

35 And when they had crucified him, they dividedCXXXII his clothes among themselves by castingCXXXIII lots;CXXXIV, CXXXV 36 then they sat down there and kept watchCXXXVI over him. 37 Over his head they put the chargeCXXXVII against him, which read, “This is Jesus, the King of the Jews.”

Notes on verses 35-36

CXXXII “divided” = diamerizo. Related to “sinned” in v4. 12x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); {from meros (see note XXI above)}. This is to divide up, distribute, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.
CXXXIII “casting” = ballo. Same as “put” in v6. See note XXIX above.
CXXXIV “lots” = kleros. 12x in NT. Perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This lot, portion, heritage. It is that share assigned to you. It could also refer to a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will.
CXXXV Some ancient manuscripts include here “in order that what had been spoken through the prophet might be fulfilled, ‘They divided my clothes among themselves, and for my clothing they cast lots.’” “Clothing” = himatismos. 6x in NT. Related to “clothes” in v31. From himatizo (to clothe or dress); from himation (see note CXII above). This is clothing, vesture, or raiment. It is generally used of fine or expensive clothing in the NT (see Lk 7:25, Acts 20:33, and 1 Timothy 2:9). It is also used in Lk 9:29 to describe Jesus’s clothes at the Transfiguration.
CXXXVI “kept watch” = tereo. Related to “amazed” in v14. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (see note LVII above). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used figuratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
CXXXVII “charge” = aitia. Related to “ask for” in v20. From aiteo (see note LXXVIII above). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.

38 Then two banditsCXXXVIII were crucified with him, one on his right and one on his left.CXXXIX 39 Those who passed by deridedCXL him, shakingCXLI their heads 

Notes on verses 38-39

CXXXVIII “bandits” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barrabas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.
CXXXIX “left” = euonumos. Related to “named” in v32. 9x in NT. From eu (good, well rightly) + onoma (see note CXVII above). This is literally well-named or of a good name. It refers to the left or left side.
CXL “derided” = blasphemeo. Related to “prophet” in v9 & “said” in v11. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (see note XXXIX above)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
CXLI “shaking” = kineo. 8x in NT. This is to move, excite, or provoke. It is to stir in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “kinetic” comes from.

40 and saying, “You who would destroyCXLII the temple and buildCXLIII it in three days, saveCXLIV yourself! If you are the Son of God,CXLV come down from the cross.” 

Notes on verse 40

CXLII “destroy” = kataluo. Related to “release” in v15. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (see note LX above). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
CXLIII “build” = oikodomeo. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
CXLIV “save” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
CXLV “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

41 In the same way the chief priests also, along with the scribesCXLVI and elders, were mocking him, saying, 42 “He saved others;CXLVII he cannotCXLVIII save himself. He is the King of Israel; let him come down from the cross now, and we will believeCXLIX in him. 

Notes on verses 41-42

CXLVI “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
CXLVII “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
CXLVIII “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Dunamai is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
CXLIX “believe” = pisteuo. Related to “persuaded” in v20. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (see note LXXVII above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

43 He trustsCL in God; let God deliverCLI him now, if he wants to; for he said, ‘I am God’s Son.’” 44 The bandits who were crucifiedCLII with him also tauntedCLIII him in the same way.

Notes on verses 43-44

CL “trusts” = peitho. Same as “persuaded” in v20. See note LXXVII above.
CLI “deliver” = rhuomai. Related to “charge” in v14. 18x in NT– including from the Lord’s prayer “deliver us from evil”. Related to eruo (to draw or drag) OR related to rheo (to flow, overflow). This is to rescue or set free. It is to deliver from danger, to snatch up.
CLII “crucified” = sustauroo. Related to “stood” in v11 & “sent word” in v19 & “crucified” in v22 & “cross” in v32. 5x in NT– including “our old self was crucified with him” from Romans 6:6. From sun (with, together with) + stauroo (see note LXXX above). This is crucify together with.
CLIII “taunted” = oneidizo. Related to “named” in v32 & “left” in v38. 9x in NT. From oneidos (a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation, a taunt or reproach); perhaps from the base of onoma (see note CXVII above). This is to disgrace, insult, mock, blame, or curse someone so as to create shame. This is when a person or thing is considered guilty and deserving punishment. So, it can be denounce, revile, defame, or chide.

45 From noonCLIV on, darknessCLV came over the whole land until three in the afternoon.CLVI 

Notes on verse 45

CLIV “noon” = hektos + hora. Literally “sixth hour.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
CLV “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
CLVI “three in the afternoon” = hora + ennatos. Literally “ninth hour.” See note CLIV above.

46 And about three o’clock Jesus criedCLVII with a loudCLVIII voice,CLIX “Eli,CLX Eli, lema sabachthani?”CLXI that is, “My God, my God, why have you forsakenCLXII me?” 

Notes on verse 46

CLVII “cried” = anaboao. 1x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + boao (cry out, make a distress call, ask for desperately need assistance); {from boe (a cry, shout)}. This is to cry out with intensity and urgency. Generally a cry for help infused with deepest emotions. This is sounding the alarm to the greatest extent.
CLVIII “loud” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CLIX “voice” = phone. Related to “prophet” in v9 & “said” in v11 & “derided” in v39. Probably from phemi (see note XXXIX above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
CLX “Eli” = eli. 2x in NT. From Aramaic el (God); from Hebrew el (God).
CLXI “sabachthani” = sabachthani. 2x in NT. From Aramaic shebaq (to leave, leave alone, quite); corresponding to Hebrew azab (loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute). This is forsake or leave.
CLXII “forsaken” = egkataleipo. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kataleipo (to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing)}. This is left behind, left as a remainder, desert, forsake. Properly, it means to leave someone or something wanting or lacking – so, to forsake or cause someone to be helpless in a serious scenario.

47 When some of the bystandersCLXIII heard it, they said, “This man is callingCLXIV for Elijah.”CLXV 

Notes on verse 47

CLXIII “bystanders” = histemi. Same as “stood” in v11. See note XLVIII above.
CLXIV “calling” = phoneo. Related to “prophet” in v9 & “said” in v11 & “derided” in v39 & “voice” in v46. From phone (see note CLIX above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address; making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
CLXV “Elijah” = Elias. Related to “Jesus” in v1 & “Jeremiah” in v9 & “Eli” in v46. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from el (see note CLX above) + Yah (see note XL above). This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”

48 At onceCLXVI one of them ranCLXVII and got a sponge,CLXVIII filledCLXIX it with sour wine,CLXX put it on a stick,CLXXI and gave it to him to drink.CLXXII

Notes on verse 48

CLXVI “at once” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked). This is directly, soon, at once.
CLXVII “ran” = trecho. 20x in NT. To run, make progress, rush. This is running like an athlete in a race. Figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way.
CLXVIII “sponge” = spoggos. 3x in NT– all during the crucifixion. Perhaps related to spoggos (sponge or tonsil) –  a “Mediterranean-Pontic Pre-Greek substrate loanword.” This is sponge. See
CLXIX “filled” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
CLXX “sour wine” = oxos. Related to “thorns” in v29. 6x in NT– all of the crucifixion. From oxus (sharp, eager, quick); probably related to akmen (see note CIII above). This is sour wine or vinegar. As the lowest grade of Roman wine, it was a common drink for Roman soldiers.
CLXXI “stick” = kalamos. Same as “reed” in v29. See note CVII above.
CLXXII “gave…to drink” = potizo. Related to “drink” in v34. 15x in NT. From potos (drink or for drinking) OR from pino (see note CXXVII above). This is to give to drink, water, furnish, irrigate, or feed.

49 But the othersCLXXIII said, “Wait,CLXXIV let us see whether Elijah will come to save him.”CLXXV 

Notes on verse 49

CLXXIII “others” = loipos. Related to “forsaken” in v46. From leipo (see note CLXII above). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.
CLXXIV “wait” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
CLXXV Some ancient manuscripts add, “And another took a spear and pierced his side, and out came water and blood.” “Side” = pleura. 6x in NT. This is a rib, which extends to the side of the body in general. This is where the word “pleurisy” comes from.

50 Then Jesus cried again with a loud voice and breathedCLXXVI his last. 51 At that momentCLXXVII the curtainCLXXVIII of the temple was tornCLXXIX in two, from topCLXXX to bottom.

Notes on verses 50-51a

CLXXVI “breathed” = aphiemi + ho + pneuma. Literally “released the spirit.” Aphiemi is the same as “wait” in v39. See note CLXXIV above. Pneuma is from pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CLXXVII “at that moment” = kai + idou. Literally “and see.” Idou is related to “realized” in v18. From eido (see note LXVII above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CLXXVIII “curtain” = katapetasma. 6x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + petannumi (to spread out). This is the inner veil in the Temple. Literally, it is what spreads down i.e. hangs down. The curtain hung between the Holy of Holies, the innermost part of the Temple, from the rest of it.
CLXXIX “torn” = schizo. 11x in NT. This is to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).
CLXXX “from top” = anothen. 13x in NT– this is the word used in John 3:3 in the being born “from above”/“again” conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus.. From ano (up, above, up to the top, things above, heaven); from ana (up, upwards, again, back, among, anew). This is from above, from the top, again, beginning, from the source. It implies anew.

 The earth shook,CLXXXI and the rocksCLXXXII were split.CLXXXIII 

Notes on verse 51b

CLXXXI “shook” = seio. 5x in NT. This is shake, move, or quake. Properly, it is shaking back and forth. Figuratively, it can mean to agitate or to cause people to have tremors of fear or worry.
CLXXXII “rocks” = petra. 15x in NT. This is large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff. It can also be cave or stony ground.
CLXXXIII “split” = schizo. Same as “torn” in v51. See note CLXXIX above.

52 The tombsCLXXXIV also were opened, and many bodiesCLXXXV of the saintsCLXXXVI who had fallen asleepCLXXXVII were raised.CLXXXVIII 

Notes on verse 52

CLXXXIV “tombs” = mnemeion. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
CLXXXV “bodies” = soma. Related to “save” in v40. Perhaps from sozo (see note CXLIV above). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
CLXXXVI “saints” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CLXXXVII “fallen asleep” = koimao. 18x in NT. From keimai (to lie, recline, set, be appointed, be destined). This is to sleep or put to sleep. Figuratively, it can mean to die. In the New Testament, it is used 15x for death and 3x for sleep.
CLXXXVIII “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.

53 After his resurrectionCLXXXIX they came out of the tombs and entered the holyCXC cityCXCI and appearedCXCII to many. 

Notes on verse 53

CLXXXIX “resurrection” = egersis. Related to “raised” in v52. 1x in NT. From egeiro (see note CLXXXVIII above). This is rousing, waking up, resurrection from death.
CXC “holy” = hagios. Same as “saints” in v52. See note CLXXXVI above.
CXCI “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CXCII “appeared” = emphanizo. Related to “prophet” in v9 & “said” in v11 & “derided” in v39 & “voice” in v46 & “calling” in v47. 10x in NT. From emphanes (visible, apparent, openly, understood); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + phaino (see note XXXIX above)}. This is to declare, make visible, or exhibit in person. It can also be to report against or notify.

54 Now when the centurionCXCIII and those with him, who were keeping watch over Jesus, saw the earthquakeCXCIV and what took place,CXCV they were terrifiedCXCVI and said, “TrulyCXCVII this man was God’s Son!”

Notes on verse 54

CXCIII “centurion” = hekatontarches. Related to “chief priests” in v1. From hekaton (hundred) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is a centurion from the Roman army, leader a captain of one hundred soldiers.
CXCIV “earthquake” = seismos. Related to “shook” in v51. 14x in NT. From seio (see note CLXXXI above). This is a commotion or shaking generally. It can also be a storm or earthquake. This is where “seismic” comes from.
CXCV “took place” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v1. See note II above.
CXCVI “terrified” = phobeo + sphodra. Phobeo is from phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from. Sphodra is 11x in NT. From sphodros (exceeding, very much, all out, violent). This is exceedingly, greatly, deeply. This is going all out, with total effort, done to the fullest extent.
CXCVII “truly” = alethos. 18x in NT. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.

55 Many womenCXCVIII were also there, looking onCXCIX from a distance; they had followedCC Jesus from GalileeCCI and had providedCCII for him. 

Notes on verse 55

CXCVIII “women” = gune. Same as “wife” in v19. See note LXXI above.
CXCIX “looking on” = theoreo. Related to “amazed” in v14 & “kept watch” in v36. From theaomai (see note LVII above). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
CC “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
CCI “Galilee” = Galilaia. Related to “Golgotha” in v33. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (see note CXXIII above). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
CCII “provided” = diakoneo. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); {perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute); {related to dio (put to flight)}}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.

56 Among them were MaryCCIII Magdalene,CCIV and Mary the mother of JamesCCV and Joseph,CCVI and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.CCVII

Notes on verse 56

CCIII “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
CCIV “Magdalene” = Magdalene. 12x in NT. From Magdala (Magadan, a place near the Sea of Galilee); perhaps from Aramaic migdal, see also Hebrew migdal (tower); from gadal (to grow, grow up, be great). This is from Magdala.
CCV “James” = Iakobus. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
CCVI “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
CCVII “Zebedee” = Zebedaios. Related to “Jesus” in v1 & “Jeremiah” in v9 & “Elijah” in v47. 12x in NT. From Hebrew zebadyah (Zebadiah, “The Lord has bestowed”); {from Zabad (to bestow, confer, endure) + Yah (see note XL above)}. This is Zebedee, meaning “the Lord has bestowed.”

57 When it was evening, there came a richCCVIII man from Arimathea,CCIX namedCCX Joseph, who was also a discipleCCXI of Jesus. 58 He went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus; then Pilate orderedCCXII it to be givenCCXIII to him. 

Notes on verses 57-58

CCVIII “rich” = plousios. Perhaps related to “great deal” in v19 & “filled” in v48. From ploutos (abundance, wealth, or riches; money, possessions, spiritual abundance, or a valuable bestowment); from polus (see note LXXV above) OR pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is wealthy, having full resources. It can be a rich person or refer to God’s abundance.
CCIX “Arimathea” = Harimathaia. 4x in NT. From Hebrew compare Ramah (Ramah, height); from rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively). This is Arimathea, a city by Jerusalem.
CCX “named” = tounoma. Related to “named” in v32 & “left” in v38 & perhaps “taunted” in v44. From ho (the) + onoma (see note CXVII above). This is by name.
CCXI “was…a disciple” = matheteuo. 4x in NT. From mathetes (a disciple, learner, or student). This to be, make, or train a disciple. It is the same root that “mathematics” comes from.
CCXII “ordered” = keleuo. Related to “called” in v8. See note XXXVII above.
CCXIII “given” = apodidomi. Related to “handed…over” in v2 & “gave” in v10. From apo (from, away from) + didomi (see note XI above). This is to give back, return, give away. It is to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell.

59 So Joseph took the body and wrappedCCXIV it in a cleanCCXV linen clothCCXVI 

Notes on verse 59

CCXIV “wrapped” = entulisso. 3x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + tulisso (to twist); {probably akin to helisso (to roll up, coil, wrap)} This is to wrap, entwine, envelop, wine up.
CCXV “clean” = katharos. This is clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying.
CCXVI “linen cloth” = sindon. 6x in NT.  This is byssos, a fine linen cloth, garment, or sheet.

60 and laidCCXVII it in his own newCCXVIII tomb, which he had hewn in the rock. He then rolled a great stone to the doorCCXIX of the tomb and went away. 61 Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were there, sitting opposite the tomb.CCXX

Notes on verses 60-61

CCXVII “laid” = tithemi. Related to “put on” in v28 & “put” in v29. See note CI above.
CCXVIII “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
CCXIX “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
CCXX “tomb” = taphos. Related to “place to bury” in v7. 7x in NT. From thapto (to bury, hold a funeral). This is a burial place such as a grave, sepulcher, or tomb.

62 The next day, that is, after the day of Preparation,CCXXI the chief priests and the PhariseesCCXXII gathered before Pilate 63 and said, “Sir,CCXXIII we rememberCCXXIV what that impostorCCXXV said while he was still alive, ‘After three days I will rise again.’ 

Notes on verses 62-63

CCXXI “Preparation” = paraskeue. 6x in NT. From paraskeuazo (to prepare, get ready); {from para (from beside, by) + skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense); {from skeuazo (to prepare using a tool)}}. This is preparation or readiness. It can be used specifically to refer to preparing for the Sabbath or a festival.
CCXXII “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
CCXXIII “sir” = kurios. Same as “Lord” in v10. See note XLVI above.
CCXXIV “remember” = mimnesko. Related to “tombs” in v52. From mnaomai (see note CLXXXIV above). This is to remind or remember. It is memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful of. It is not incidentally or accidentally remembering.
CCXXV “imposter” = planos. 5x in NT. This is one who leads astray – wandering, deceiving, misleading, an imposter.

64 Therefore commandCCXXVI the tomb to be made secureCCXXVII until the third day; otherwise his disciplesCCXXVIII may go and steal him away,CCXXIX and tell the people, ‘He has been raised from the dead,’CCXXX

Notes on verse 64a

CCXXVI “command” = keleuo. Same as “ordered” in v58. See note CCXII above.
CCXXVII “made secure” = asphalizo. 4x in NT. From asphales (certain, safe, reliable, definite; literally, unfailing; secured because it is built on solid ground; secure in a literal or figurative sense); {from a (not) + sphallo (tripping up, cast down)}. This is to make secure, fasten, make firm. Used of binding a prison in stocks. Related to the word “asphalt.”
CCXXVIII “disciples” = mathetes. Related to “was…a disciple” in v57. See note CCXI above.
CCXXIX “steal…away” = klepto. 13x in NT. This is to steal by stealth – not in the open or using violence.
CCXXX “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

and the lastCCXXXI deceptionCCXXXII would be worseCCXXXIII than the first.” 

Notes on verse 64b

CCXXXI “last” = eschatos. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (to have, possess, hold). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
CCXXXII “deception” = plane. Related to “imposter” in v63. 10x in NT. From planos (see note CCXXV above). This is wandering. Figuratively, it can refer to error, sin, delusion, fraudulence. It can also mean one who strays from piety.
CCXXXIII “worse” = cheiron. Related to “evil” in v23. 11x in NT. A comparative of kakos (see note LXXXII above). This is worse, more evil in a physical, mental, or moral sense.

65 Pilate said to them, “You have a guardCCXXXIV of soldiers; go,CCXXXV make it as secure as you can.” 66 So they wentCCXXXVI with the guard and made the tomb secure by sealingCCXXXVII the stone.

Notes on verses 65-66

CCXXXIV “guard” = koustodia. 3x in NT. From Latin custodia (custody, protection, guardianship); from custos (guard, jailer, keeper, custodian); perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewdʰ– (to cover, wrap, encase); from *(s)kew– (to cover, hide). This is a guard or watch – a Roman sentry. See
CCXXXV “go” = hupago. Related to “led…away” in v2 & “governor” in v2 & “gathered” in v17. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note X above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
CCXXXVI “went” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
CCXXXVII “sealing” = sphragizo. 15x in NT. From sphragis (a seal, signet, or signet ring; also the impression of that seal; so, the thing attested to by that seal – proof or a signifier of privacy); perhaps from phrasso (to stop, fence in). Properly, this is sealing something with some kind of stamp that tells who the owner is, gives it authorization or validity. It shows that the owner lends their full authority or backing to the matter in question. This was the ancient world’s equivalent of a signature on a legal document to guarantee the commitments made in the document. There were also tattoos that were given to show who someone belonged to in a religious sense.

Image credit:  V station of the Cross in Franciscan Chapel of the Apparition in Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem

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