Numbers 12

Numbers 12


While they were at Hazeroth, MiriamI and AaronII spokeIII against MosesIV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Miriam” = Miryam. 15x in OT. From marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam.
II “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See
III “spoke” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
IV “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

because ofV the CushiteVI womanVII whom he had marriedVIII (for he had indeed married a Cushite woman), 

Notes on verse 1b

V “because of” = al + odoth. Odoth is 11x in OT. From the same as ud (firebrand, a poker). This is turning, occasion, cause, concerning.
VI “Cushite” = Kushi. From Kush (Cush or his descendants; Ethiopia – a place south of the Nile Valley); perhaps from Egyptia k’sh (Cush). This is Cushite or Ethiopian. See
VII “woman” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.
VIII “married” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.

and they said, “Has the LordIX spoken onlyX through Moses? Has he not spoken through us also?” And the Lord heardXI it. 

Notes on verse 2

IX “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
X “only” = raq+ ak. Raq is from the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is but, except, at least. In the sense of being thin, it figuratively refers to some kind of limit. Ak is related to aken (surely, truly, nevertheless); from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is a positive statement – surely, also, certainly, alone, only.
XI “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.

Now the manXII Moses was veryXIII humble,XIV

Notes on verse 3a

XII “man” = ish. Related to “woman” in v1. See note VII above.
XIII “very” = meod. Related to “because of” in v1. Perhaps from the same as ud (see note V above). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
XIV “humble” = anav. From anah (to be bowed down; can refer to a sense of humility or to a sense of being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed; literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance). This is poor, needy, afflicted as well as humble or meek.

more so than anyone elseXV on the faceXVI of the earth.XVII 

Notes on verse 3b

XV “anyone else” = kol + adam. Kol is from kalal (to complete). This is all or every. Adam is perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
XVI “face” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XVII “earth” = adamah. Related to “anyone else” in v3. See note XV above.

SuddenlyXVIII the Lord said to Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, “Come out,XIX you three,XX to the tentXXI of meeting.”XXII So the three of them came out. 

Notes on verse 4

XVIII “suddenly” = pithom. From the same as petha (instantly, suddenly; the wink of an eye – an instant). This is suddenly or immediately.
XIX “come out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XX “three” = shalosh. This is three, fork, three times.
XXI “tent” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
XXII “meeting” = moed. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.

Then the Lord came downXXIII in a pillarXXIV of cloudXXV

Notes on verse 5a

XXIII “came down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
XXIV “pillar” = ammud. From amad (to stand up in a literal or figurative sense; to establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy). This is a pillar, stand, or platform.
XXV “cloud” = anan. May be from anan (cover, cloud over; figuratively, acting in a secret way, practicing magic or soothsaying). This is a cloud as something that covers the sky.

and stoodXXVI at the entranceXXVII of the tent and calledXXVIII Aaron and Miriam, and they bothXXIX came forward.XXX 

Notes on verse 5b

XXVI “stood” = amad. Related to “pillar” in v5. See note XXIV above.
XXVII “entrance” = pethach. From pathach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense; to open, draw out, let something go free, break forth, to plow, engrave, or carve). This is any kind of opening – a door, entrance, gate.
XXVIII “called” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
XXIX “both” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
XXX “came forward” = yatsa. Same as “come out” in v4. See note XIX above.

And he said, “HearXXXI my words:XXXII

When there areXXXIII prophetsXXXIV among you,

Notes on verse 6a

XXXI {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
XXXII “words” = dabar. Related to “spoke” in v1. From dabar (see note III above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
XXXIII “are” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v2. See note IX above.
XXXIV “prophets” = nabi. This is prophet, prophecy, speaker, or someone inspired.

    I the Lord make myself knownXXXV to them in visions;XXXVI
    I speak to them in dreams.XXXVII

Notes on verse 6b

XXXV “make…known” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XXXVI “visions” = marah. 11x in OT. From mareh (sight, appearance, or vision; a view, seeing itself, that which is seen, something real, or a vision one sees); from raah (to see, show, stare, think, view; to see in a literal or figurative sense). This is a vision or a looking glass.
XXXVII “dreams” = chalom. From chalam (properly, to bind solidly and so to be plump; to be healthy or strong, to recover; figuratively, to dream). This is a dream or dreamer.

Not soXXXVIII with my servantXXXIX Moses;
    he is faithfulXL in allXLI my house.XLII

Notes on verse 7

XXXVIII “so” = ken. Related to “only” in v2. Perhaps from kun (see note X above). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
XXXIX “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
XL “is faithful” = aman. This is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. This is where the word “amen” comes from.
XLI “all” = kol. Same as “anyone else” in v3. See note XV above.
XLII “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

With him I speak faceXLIII to faceXLIV—clearly,XLV not in riddles,XLVI
    and he beholdsXLVII the formXLVIII of the Lord.

Notes on verse 8a

XLIII “face” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
XLIV “face” = peh. Same as “face” in v8. See note XLIII above.
XLV “clearly” = mareh. Related to “visions” in v6. See note XXXVI above.
XLVI “riddles” = chidah. 17x in OT– including the riddle of Samson’s marriage in Judges 14 and “hard questions” posed by the Queen of Sheba in 1 Kings 10. Perhaps from chud (to tie a knot, offer a riddle). This is a riddle, proverb, question, puzzle, intrigue, dark saying.
XLVII “beholds” = nabat. This is to behold, look at intently, consider, or scan. It can mean to have respect or regard someone favorably.
XLVIII “form” = temunah. 10x in OT. From the same as min (kind, sort, species). This is something that has been apportioned or fashioned. It can be an embodiment or shape. It can also figuratively be a favor that manifests.

“WhyXLIX then were you not afraidL to speak against my servant Moses?” And the angerLI

Notes on verses 8b-9a

XLIX “why” = maddua. Related to “make…known” in v6. From mah (what, how long) + yada (see note XXXV above). This is why or how.
L “afraid” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
LI “anger” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.

of the LordLII was kindledLIII against them, and he departed.LIV

Notes on verse 9b

LII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v2 & “are” in v6. From the same as YHVH (see note IX above). It has a different vowel pointing, but the same meaning as “Lord.”
LIII “kindled” = charah. Perhaps related to charar (to be hot, burn, glow, melt, be scorched; figuratively, to incite passion, be angry). This is to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn. Figuratively it is a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy.
LIV “departed” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.

10 When the cloud went awayLV from over the tent,LVI Miriam’s skin had become diseased,LVII as white as snow.LVIII And Aaron turnedLIX toward Miriam andLX saw that she was diseased. 

Notes on verse 10

LV “went away” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
LVI {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
LVII “become diseased” = tsara. From tsaraath (leprosy or a mark). This is to have leprosy or be a leper.
LVIII “snow” = sheleg. 19x in OT. Perhaps from shalag (to snow, to be white). This is snow or snowy.
LIX “turned” = panah. Related to “face” in v3. See note XVI above.
LX {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v10. See note LVI above.

11 Then Aaron said to Moses, “Oh,LXI my lord,LXII do notLXIII punishLXIV us 

Notes on verse 11a

LXI “oh” = biy. 12x in OT. Perhaps from ba’ah (to inquire, search, boil, or swell out. Figuratively, it could be to sincerely desire). This is O, I pray – it is used to make a request or to speak to someone of higher social status. It is always followed by, “my lord.” In the Bible it is used in addressing a higher status human, an angel, and also God.
LXII “lord” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
LXIII {untranslated} = na. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note XXXI above.
LXIV “punish” = shith. This is to place, set, bring, appoint, consider, bring, array or look.

for a sinLXV that we have so foolishlyLXVI committed.LXVII 12 Do notLXVIII let her be like one stillborn,LXIX

Notes on verses 11b-12a

LXV “sin” = chatta’ah. From chata’ (to miss or go wrong and so to sin, bear the blame; it can also include the sense of forfeiting or lacking). This is sin itself as well as punishment for sin. It is sometimes used specifically to refer to sin that is habitual.
LXVI “foolishly” = yaal. 4x in OT. This is to be slack or act foolishly.
LXVII “committed” = chata. Related to “sin” in v11. See note LXV above.
LXVIII {untranslated} = na. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note XXXI above.
LXIX “stillborn” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

whose fleshLXX is halfLXXI consumedLXXII when it comes out of its mother’sLXXIII womb.”LXXIV 

Notes on verse 12b

LXX “flesh” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
LXXI “half” = chatsi. From chatsah (to halve, divide, reach, participate). This is half, middle, midnight, midst.
LXXII “consumed” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIII “mother’s” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIV “womb” = rechem. Related to racham (compassion, tender love, womb, compassion; the womb as that which cherishes the fetus). This is a womb.

13 And Moses criedLXXV to the Lord,LXXVI saying, “O God,LXXVII pleaseLXXVIII healLXXIX her.”LXXX 

Notes on verse 13

LXXV “cried” = tsaaq. This is to cry out or call together, to shriek. It can mean, by implication, calling for an assembly.
LXXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note IX above.
LXXVII “God” = El.
LXXVIII “please” = na. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note XXXI above.
LXXIX “heal” = rapha. Properly, this is to repair by stitching – figuratively this means to heal or cure. It can also mean to make whole.
LXXX {untranslated} = na. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note XXXI above.

14 But the LordLXXXI said to Moses, “If her fatherLXXXII had but spitLXXXIII in her face,LXXXIV

Notes on verse 14a

LXXXI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note IX above.
LXXXII “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIII “but spit” = yaraq + yaraq. 3x in OT. This is to spit. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
LXXXIV “face” = paneh. Same as “face” in v3. See note XVI above.

would she not bear her shameLXXXV for sevenLXXXVI days?LXXXVII

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXV “bear…shame” = kalam. This is bearing shame, bringing dishonor or disgrace, humiliate insult, taunt, embarrass, reproach. Properly, to wound in a figurative sense.
LXXXVI “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
LXXXVII “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

Let her be shutLXXXVIII outLXXXIX of the campXC for seven days, and afterXCI that she may be brought inXCII again.” 

Notes on verse 14c

LXXXVIII “shut” = sagar. This is to shut up, imprison, lock, hand over, or figuratively surrender.
LXXXIX “out” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.
XC “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
XCI “after” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
XCII “brought in” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.

15 So Miriam was shut out of the camp for seven days, and the peopleXCIII did not set out on the marchXCIV until Miriam had been brought in again. 16 After that the people set out from HazerothXCV

Notes on verses 15-16a

XCIII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XCIV “set out on the march” = nasa. This is properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes. This would imply striking tents in order to start a journey. So this could be bring, pullout, set out, journey, or cause to go away.
XCV “Hazeroth” = Chatseroth. 6x in OT. From chatser (settlement, village). This is Hazeroth or Chatseroth, meaning “yard.”

and campedXCVI in the wildernessXCVII of Paran.XCVIII

Notes on verse 16b

XCVI “camped” = chanah. Related to “camp” in v14. See note XC above.
XCVII “wilderness” = midbar. Related to “spoke” in v1 & “words” in v6. From dabar (see note III above). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
XCVIII “Paran” = Paran. 11x in OT. From the same as porah (a branch or spring; properly, ornamentation); perhaps from pa’ar (to beautify or adorn, to gleam; can refer to showing honor or glorifying someone; also to boast or to shake a tree for harvest). This is Paran, perhaps meaning ornamental.

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