Numbers 26

Numbers 26


After the plague the LordI said to MosesII and to EleazarIII, IV the priest,V 

Notes on verse 1

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
III “Eleazar” = Elazar. From El (God, a god) + azar (to help, protect, support, ally; properly, to surround so as to provide aid). This is Elezar or Elazar, meaning “God has helped” or “God is helper.”
IV {untranslated} = ben + Aharon. Literally, “son of Aaron.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Aharon has an uncertain derivation. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See
V “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.

“TakeVI a censusVII of the wholeVIII congregationIX

Notes on verse 2a

VI “take” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
VII “census” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
VIII “whole” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
IX “congregation” = edah. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.

of the Israelites,X from twentyXI yearsXII oldXIII and up,XIV

Notes on verse 2b

X “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as {untranslated} in v1. See note IV above. Yisrael is related to “Eleazar” in v1. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (see note III above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XI “twenty” = esrim. From the same as eser (ten, tenth). This is twenty or twentieth.
XII “years” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
XIII “old” = ben. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note IV above.
XIV “up” = maal. From alah (to go up, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense). This is the upper part, forward, high above, upwards, greater, heaven, or exceedingly.

by their ancestralXV houses,XVI everyoneXVII in Israel able to goXVIII to war.”XIX 

Notes on verse 2c

XV “ancestral” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XVI “houses” = bayit. Related to {untranslated} in v1. Probably from banah (see note IV above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XVII “everyone” = kol. Same as “whole” in v2. See note VIII above.
XVIII “go” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XIX “war” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.

Moses and Eleazar the priest spokeXX with them in the plainsXXI of MoabXXII

Notes on verse 3a

XX “spoke” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
XXI “plains” = arabah. From the same as arab (desert plateau, Arabia) OR from arab (to become evening); {from ereb (evening) or from arab (to exchange, give or take on pledge, braid, intermix)}. This is a desert valley or plain, wilderness. Also, the name of a place Arabah.
XXII “Moab” = Moab. Related to “ancestral” in v2. May be from ab (see note XV above). This is Moab or Moabite. Name could mean “from her father” in reference to the incestuous relationship between Lot and his daughters. The name could also mean, more pleasantly, “seed of a father” or “desirable land.” See

by the JordanXXIII opposite Jericho,XXIV saying, “Take a census of the people, from twenty years old and up,” as the Lord commandedXXV Moses.

The Israelites who came outXXVI of the landXXVII of EgyptXXVIII were:

Notes on verses 3b-4

XXIII “Jordan” = Yarden. From yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
XXIV “Jericho” = Yericho. From yareach (moon); {from the same as yerach (month)} OR from ruach (smell, breathe, perceive, anticipate, accept, enjoy). This is Jericho meaning either “moon city” or “fragrant place.”
XXV “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
XXVI “came out” = yatsa. Same as “go” in v2. See note XVIII above.
XXVII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XXVIII “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.

Reuben,XXIX the firstbornXXX of Israel. The descendantsXXXI of Reuben: of Hanoch,XXXII

Notes on verse 5a

XXIX “Reuben” = Reuben. Related to {untranslated} in v1 & “houses” in v2. From raah (to see, show, stare, think, view; to see in a literal or figurative sense) + ben (see note IV above). This is Reuben, meaning “behold a son.”
XXX “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.
XXXI “descendants” = ben. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note IV above.
XXXII “Hanoch” = Chanoch. 16x in OT. From the same as chek (chamber or room that is private; can mean the innermost chamber of a house); probably from chanak (to narrow; to dedicate, initiate, train, or discipline). This is Enoch or Hanoch, which probably means “initiated.”

the clanXXXIII of the Hanochites;XXXIV of Pallu,XXXV the clan of the Palluites;XXXVI 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXIII “clan” = mishpachah. From the same as shiphcah (maid, maidservant); root means to spread out. This is one’s circle of relatives – clan, family, kindred.
XXXIV “Hanochites” = Chanoki. Related to “Hanoch” in v5. 1x in OT. From Chanoch (see note XXXII above). This is a Hanochite, someone descended from Hanoch.
XXXV “Pallu” = Pallu. 5x in OT. From the same as pele (wonder, miracle, wonderful, marvelous thing); {from pala (to be extraordinary, to arise, to be great or accomplish)} OR from palal (to distinguish in a literal or figurative sense; to sever, set apart, or show self to be marvelous). This is Pallu, meaning “distinguished,” “separated,” or “wonderful.” See
XXXVI “Palluites” = Pallu’i. Related to “Pallu” in v5. 1x in OT. From Pallu (see note XXXV above). This is a Palluite, someone descended from Pallu.

of Hezron,XXXVII the clan of the Hezronites;XXXVIII of Carmi,XXXIX the clan of the Carmites.XL 

Notes on verse 6

XXXVII “Hezron” = Chetsron. 18x in OT. From the same as chatser (enclosure or court – a yard that is fenced in. It could also be a village or hamlet that is walled in). This is Hezron or Chetsron, a personal name and a place name. It means ”courtyard,” “enclosure,” “surrounded by a wall,” ‘cluster,” or “village.” See
XXXVIII “Hezronites” = Chetsroni. Related to “Hezron” in v6. 2x in OT. From Chetsron (see note XXXVII above) This is a Hezronite, someone descended from Hezron.
XXXIX “Carmi” = Karmi. 8x in OT. From the same as kerem (vineyard, garden, vines, or a vintage). This is Carmi, a name meaning “gardener,” “vinedresser,” or “my vineyard.” See
XL “Carmites” = Karmi. Related to “Karmi” in v6. 1x in OT. From Karmi (see note XXXIX above). This is a Carmite, someone descended from Karmi.

These are the clans of the Reubenites;XLI XLIIthe number of those enrolledXLIII was fortyXLIV-threeXLV

Notes on verse 7a

XLI “Reubenites” = Reubeni. Related to {untranslated} in v1 & “houses” in v2 & “Reuben” in v5. 18x in OT. From Reuben (see note XXIX above). This is a Reubenite, someone who is descended from Reuben.
XLII {untranslated} = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
XLIII “number…enrolled” = paqad. This is to attend to or visit – can be used for a friendly or violent encounter. So, it can be to oversee, care for, avenge, or charge.
XLIV “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
XLV “three” = shalosh. This is three, fork, three times.

thousandXLVI sevenXLVII hundredXLVIII thirty.XLIX 

Notes on verse 7b

XLVI “thousand” = eleph. Perhaps from the same as eleph (herd, cattle); from alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is thousand.
XLVII “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
XLVIII “hundred” = meah. This is hundred or some number times one hundred (i.e. hundredfold or the base of two hundred, three hundred, etc.).
XLIX “thirty” = sheloshim. Related to “three” in v7. From the same as shalosh (see note XLV above). This is thirty or thirtieth.

And the descendants of Pallu: Eliab.L The descendants of Eliab: Nemuel,LI Dathan,LII and Abiram.LIII

Notes on verses 8-9a

L “Eliab” = Eliab. Related to “Eleazar” in v1 & “Israelites” in v2 & rel to “ancestral” in v2 & “Moab” in v3. From El (see note III above) + ab (see note XV above). This is Eliab, meaning “God is father” or “God of his father.”
LI “Nemuel” = Nemuel. Related to “Eleazar” in v1 & “Israelites” in v2 & “Eliab” in v8. 3x in OT. Perhaps from Yemuel (Yemuel, Jemuel; “day of God”); {from yom (root may mean being hot; day in a literal or figurative sense; birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time) + El (see note III above)}. This is Nemuel, perhaps meaning “day of God.”
LII “Dathan” = Dathan. 10x in OT. Perhaps from a foreign language – dat (decree, law, well) This is Dathan, which may mean “fount,” “belonging to a fountain,” “their fountain,” or “their law.” See
LIII “Abiram” = Abiram. Related to “ancestral” in v2 & “Moab” in v3 & “Eliab” in v8. 11x in OT. From ab (see note XV above) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense). This is Abiram, meaning “exalted father” or “father of height” or “lofty.” See

These are the same Dathan and Abiram, chosenLIV from the congregation, who rebelledLV against Moses and AaronLVI in the congregation of Korah,LVII when they rebelled against the Lord, 

Notes on verse 9b

LIV “chosen” = qari. 3x in OT– all in Numbers. From qara (to call or call out – to call someone by name; calling forth). This is called, chosen, renowned.
LV “rebelled” = natsah. 11x in OT. Properly, this means to go forth so it implies being expelled. This, in turn, implies being desolate or, causatively, to be laid waste. It can mean waste or ruinous. It can also be used figuratively for quarreling or striving together.
LVI “Aaron” = Aharon. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note IV above.
LVII “Korah” = Qorach. From qarach (to shave bald, perhaps frozen). This is Korah, perhaps meaning “ice,” “frost,” “hail,” or “baldness.” See

10 and the earthLVIII openedLIX its mouthLX and swallowed them upLXI along with Korah, when that congregation died,LXII

Notes on verse 10a

LVIII “earth” = erets. Same as “land” in v4. See note XXVII above.
LIX “opened” = pathach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.
LX “mouth” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
LXI “swallowed…up” = bala. This is to swallow, engulf, cover, or destroy.
LXII “died” = mavet. From mut (to die in a literal or figurative sense). This can be death, deadliness, the dead, or the place where the dead go. It can be used figuratively for pestilence or ruin.

when the fireLXIII devouredLXIV two hundred fiftyLXV men,LXVI

Notes on verse 10b

LXIII “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIV “devoured” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
LXV “fifty” = chamishshim. From chamesh (five, fifth). This is fifty.
LXVI “men” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.

and they becameLXVII a warning.LXVIII 11 Notwithstanding, the sonsLXIX of Korah did not die.LXX

Notes on verses 10c-11

LXVII “became” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLII above.
LXVIII “warning” = nes. From nasas (to be high, easy to see, sparkling, to gleam, to raise a flag or signal). This is a flag, pole, sail, warning, signal, token.
LXIX “sons” = ben. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note IV above.
LXX “die” = mut. Related to “died” in v10. See note LXII above.

12 The descendants of SimeonLXXI by their clans: of Nemuel, the clan of the Nemuelites;LXXII of Jamin,LXXIII

Notes on verse 12a

LXXI “Simeon” = Shimon. From shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simeon, Symeon, or Simon. It is a personal name as well as the tribe Simeon. It means “he who hears.”
LXXII “Nemuelites” = Nemueli. Related to “Eleazar” in v1 & “Israelites” in v2 & “Eliab” in v8 & “Nemuel” in v9. 1x in OT. From Nemuel (see note LI above). This is a Nemuelite, someone descended from Nemuel.
LXXIII “Jamin” = Yamin. 6x in OT. From the same as yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); may be from yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm). This is Jamin or Yamin, a personal name meaning “right hand.”

the clan of the Jaminites;LXXIV of Jachin,LXXV the clan of the Jachinites;LXXVI 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXIV “Jaminites” = Yamini. Related to “Jamin” in 12. 2x in OT. From Yamin (see note LXXIII above). This is a Jaminite, perhaps a Benjaminite descended from Jamin.
LXXV “Jachin” = Yakin. 8x in OT. From kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is Jachin or Yakin. It is a personal as well as the name of a pillar that was in the Temple. It means “he will establish” or “he will give certainty.” See
LXXVI “Jachinites” = Yakini. Related to “Jachin” in v12. 1x in OT. From Yakin (see note LXXV above). This is a Jachinite, someone descended from Jachin.

13 of Zerah,LXXVII the clan of the Zerahites;LXXVIII of Shaul,LXXIX the clan of the Shaulites.LXXX 14 These are the clans of the Simeonites:LXXXI twenty-twoLXXXII thousand two hundred.

Notes on verses 13-14

LXXVII “Zerah” = Zerach. From zarach (to rise, shine, or dawn; can also describe symptoms of leprosy). This is Zerah or Zerach. It is a name that means “rising” or “dawn.”
LXXVIII “Zerahites” = Zarchi. Related to “Zerah” in v13. 6x in OT. From Zerach (see note LXXVII above). This is a Zerahite, someone descended from Zerah.
LXXIX “Shaul” = Shaul. From shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is Saul or Shaul, meaning “asked of the Lord.”
LXXX “Shaulites” = Shauli. Related to “Shaul” in v13. 1x in OT. From Shaul (see note LXXIX above). This is a Shaulite, someone descended from Shaul.
LXXXI “Simeonites” = Shimoni. Related to “Simeon” in v12. 4x in OT. From Shimon (see note LXXI above). This is a Simeonite, someone descended from Simeon.
LXXXII “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.

15 The descendants of GadLXXXIII by their clans: of Zephon,LXXXIV the clan of the Zephonites;LXXXV

Notes on verse 15a

LXXXIII “Gad” = Gad. Perhaps from gad (fortune, troop; Gad, the name of a god of Babylon); from gad (fortunate, a troop); from gud (to invade, overcome, attack). This is Gad, one of Jacob’s children, his tribe and the land they settled. It means “fortune” or “fortunate.”
LXXXIV “Zephon” = Tsephon. 1x in OT. From tsaphah (to look out, look around, spy watchman, sentinel; leaning out to look far away; to await or observe). This is Zephon or Tsephon, which may mean “gaze” or “cover” or “hidden” or “watching” or “earnest expectation” or “intense longing.” See
LXXXV “Zephonites” = Tsephoni. Related to “Zephon” in v15. 1x in OT. From Tsephon (see note LXXXIV above). This is a Zephonite or Tsephon, someone descended from Zephon.

of Haggi,LXXXVI the clan of the Haggites;LXXXVII of Shuni,LXXXVIII the clan of the Shunites;LXXXIX 

Notes on verse 15b

LXXXVI “Haggi” = Chaggi. 3x in OT. From chag (a feast, a sacrifice as part of a festival, or the gathering of the festival); from chagag (feast, celebrating a festival, making a pilgrimage; properly, going in a circle or marching in sacred procession; implies giddiness and dancing; reeling to and fro). This is Haggi or Chaggi, a name that means “festal” “exultation,” or “festive.” See
LXXXVII “Haggites” = Chaggi. Same as “Haggi” in v15. See note LXXXVI above.
LXXXVIII “Shuni” = Shuni. 2x in OT. From sha’an (to be quiet, relaxed) OR shaman (to sharpen). This is Shuni, a name that may mean, “quiet,” “silence,” “tranquility,” “fortunate,” or “tooth.” See 
LXXXIX “Shunites” = Shuni. Related to “Shuni” in v15. 1x in OT. From Shuni (see note LXXXVIII above). This is a Shunite, someone descended from Shuni.

16 of Ozni,XC the clan of the Oznites;XCI of Eri,XCII the clan of the Erites;XCIII 

Notes on verse 16

XC “Ozni” = Ozniy. 2x in OT. From ozen (ear, hearing, audience, show; properly, broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape). This is Ozni or Oznite, meaning “my hearing” or “having quick ears” or “he gives ear” or “my ear.” See
XCI “Oznites” = Ozniy.  Same as “Ozni” in v16. See note XC above.
XCII “Eri” = Eri. 2x in OT. From ur (to raise up, wake up, lift oneself up; to awake in a literal or figurative sense). This is Eri, meaning “watchful” or “roused” or “focused” or “concentrated on the Lord” or “watching.” See
XCIII “Erites” = Eri. Related to “Eri” in v16. 1x in OT. From Eri (see note XCII above). This is an Erite, someone descended from Eri.

17 of Arod,XCIV the clan of the Arodites;XCV of Areli,XCVI the clan of the Arelites.XCVII 18 These are the clans of the descendants of Gad by the number of those enrolled: forty thousand fiveXCVIII hundred.

Notes on verses 17-18

XCIV “Arod” = Arod. 1x in OT. Perhaps from Arvad (Arvad, “wandering”); probably from rud (to wander). This is Arod, meaning “fugitive” or “wild ass.” See
XCV “Arodites” = Arodi. Related to “Arod” in v17. 2x in OT. From Arvad (see note XCIV above). This is Arodi or Arodite, someone descended from Arod.
XCVI “Areli” = Areli. Related to “Eleazar” in v1 & “Israelites” in v2 & “Eliab” in v8 & “Nemuel” in v9 & “Nemuelites” in v12. 3x in OT. Perhaps from erel (hero, valiant one); probably from ariel (lion of God, hero); from ari (lion, pierce); {from arah (to gather, pluck) + El (see note III above)}}. This is Areli, meaning “gathered by God” or “lion of my God” or “valiant” or “heroic.” See
XCVII “Arelites” = Areli. Same as “Areli” in v17. See note XCVI above.
XCVIII “five” = chamesh. Related to “fifty” in v10. See note LXV above.

19 The sons of Judah:XCIX ErC and Onan;CI Er and Onan diedCII in the land of Canaan.CIII 

Notes on verse 19

XCIX “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
C “Er” = Er. Related to “Eri” and “Erites” in v16. 10x in OT. From ur (see note XCII above) OR from arar (to strip and amass). This is Er, a name meaning “watchful,” “city,” “watcher,” “aroused,” or “wild ass.” See
CI “Onan” = Onan. 8x in OT. From the same as on (strength, power, ability, wealth, substance, or vigor); {perhaps from aven (root may mean panting as one does when expending a lot of energy, especially when it comes to nothing; nothingness, trouble, sorrow, distress, wickedness, evil, harm, sorrow, misfortune, and mischief.; used specifically to refer to idols)} OR from ono (vigorous, strong). This is Onan, whose name means “vigorous,” “trouble,” “iniquity,” or “strong.” See
CII “died” = mut. Same as “die” in v11. See note LXX above.
CIII “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See

20 The descendants of Judah by their clans were:CIV of Shelah,CV the clan of the Shelanites;CVI of Perez,CVII the clan of the Perezites;CVIII of Zerah, the clan of the Zerahites. 

Notes on verse 20

CIV “were” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLII above.
CV “Shelah” = Shelah. Related to “Shaul” and “Shaulites” in v13. 8x in OT. From shelah (a request, loan); {from shaal (see note LXXIX above)} OR from shala (to extract, plunder). This is Shelah, a name meaning “extracted,” “prosperity,” “bounty,” “request,” “prayer,” or, “petition.” See
CVI “Shelanites” = Shelani. Related to “Shaul” and “Shaulites” in v13 & “Shelah” in v20. 1x in OT. From Shelah (see note CV above). This is a Shelanite, someone descended from Shelah.
CVII “Perez” = Perets. 15x in OT. From parats (to make a breach, burst out, compel, disperse; to break out literally or figuratively). This is Perez, meaning “breach.”
CVIII “Perezites” = Partsi. Related to “Perez” in v20. 1x in OT. From Perets (see note CVII above). This is a Perezite, someone descended from Perez.

21 The descendants of Perez were: of Hezron, the clan of the Hezronites; of Hamul,CIX the clan of the Hamulites.CX 22 These are the clans of Judah by the number of those enrolled: seventyCXI-sixCXII thousand five hundred.

Notes on verses 21-22

CIX “Hamul” = Chamul. 3x in OT. From chamal (to spare, commiserate, show compassion). This is Hamul or Chamul, meaning “spared” or “pitied.”
CX “Hamulites” = Chamuli. Related to “Hamul” in v21. 1x in OT. From Chamul (see note CIX above). This is a Hamulite, someone descended from Hamul.
CXI “seventy” = shibim. Related to “seven” in v7. From sheba (see note XLVII above). This is seventy.
CXII “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.

23 The descendants of IssacharCXIII by their clans: of Tola,CXIV the clan of the Tolaites;CXV

Notes on verse 23a

CXIII “Issachar” = Yissaskar. Related to “take” in v2 & related to “men” in v10. Perhaps from nasa (see note VI above) + sakar (wages, payment, service, salary, worth, reward, or benefit); {from sakar (to hire, reward, earn)} OR ish (see note LXVI above)} + sakar (see above). This is Issachar, one of Jacob’s children and his tribe. It may mean “there is recompense,” “man of hire,” “he is wages,” or “he will bring a reward.” See
CXIV “Tola” = Tola. 6x in OT. From the same as tola (a worm or maggot, perhaps a crimson-grub of species coccus ilicis; used to make red dye; so it could be crimson, purple, or something dyed in those colors; also, an oppressor); perhaps from yala (to devour, blurt out rudely); perhaps from the same as lua (to swallow, gulp, be rash). This is Tola, a name perhaps meaning “crimson” or “worm.”
CXV “Tolaites” = Tolai. Related to “Tola” in v23. 1x in OT. From Tola (see note CXIV above). This is a Tolaite, someone descended from Tola.

of Puvah,CXVI the clan of the Punites;CXVII 24 of Jashub,CXVIII the clan of the Jashubites;CXIX

Notes on verses 23b-24a

CXVI “Puvah” = Puvvah. Related to “mouth” in v10. 4x in OT. From poh (here, this, side); {perhaps from p- + hu (third person pronoun – he, she, it)} OR from paah (to cut in pieces, scatter, blow away) OR from peh (see note LX above). This is Puah, Puvah, or Puvvah, a personal name that may mean “blast,” “mouth,” “utterance,” or “edge.” See 
CXVII “Punites” = Puni. Related to “Puvah” in v23. 1x in OT. Probably from Puvvah (see note CXVI above). This is a Punite, someone descended from Puvah.
CXVIII “Jashub” = Yashub. 3x in OT. From shub (to turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively; not necessarily implying going back to where you started from). This is Jashub or Yashub, meaning “he will return.”
CXIX “Jashubites” = Yashubi. Related to “Jashub” in v24. 1x in OT. From Yashub (see note CXVIII above). This is a Jashubite, someone who is descended from Jashub.

of Shimron,CXX the clan of the Shimronites.CXXI 25 These are the clans of Issachar by the number of those enrolled: sixtyCXXII-fourCXXIII thousand three hundred.

Notes on verses 24b-25

CXX “Shimron” = Shimron. 5x in OT. From shemer (something preserved so it is the dregs or settling parts of wine); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Shimron, a personal name and a city meaning “guardianship,” “guardian,” or “watching.” See
CXXI “Shimronites” = Shimroni. Related to “Shimron” in v24. 1x in OT. From Shimron (see note CXX above). This is a Shmronite, someone who is descended from Shimron.
CXXII “sixty” = shishshim. Related to “six” in v22. From shesh (see note CXII above). This is sixty.
CXXIII “four” = arba. Related to “forty” in v7. See note XLIV above.

26 The descendants of ZebulunCXXIV by their clans: of Sered,CXXV the clan of the Seredites;CXXVI of Elon,CXXVII the clan of the Elonites;CXXVIII

Notes on verse 26a

CXXIV “Zebulun” = Zebulun. From zabal (to dwell, inclose, reside). This is Zebulun, that tribe, or their territory. It means “habitation.”
CXXV “Sered” = Sered. 2x in OT. Root may refer to trembling. This is Sered, a name that means “trembling.”
CXXVI “Seredites” = Sardi. Related to “Sered” in v26. From Sered (see note CXXV above). This is a Seredite, someone who is descended from Sered.
CXXVII “Elon” = Elon. 6x in OT. From ayil (oaks); from the same as ulam (porch, hall); from the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power) OR from alam (to bind or tie fast; to be silent or speechless, whether voluntary or involuntary). This is Elon, a terebinth or oak. It is a personal name of several people in the Bible.
CXXVIII “Elonites” = Eloni. Related to “Elon” in v26. 1x in OT. From Elon (see note CXXVII above). This is an Elonite, someone descended from Elon.

of Jahleel,CXXIX the clan of the Jahleelites.CXXX 27 These are the clans of the ZebulunitesCXXXI by the number of those enrolled: sixty thousand five hundred.

Notes on verses 26b-27

CXXIX “Jahleel” = Yachleel. Related to “Eleazar” in v1 & “Israelites” in v2 & “Eliab” in v8 & “Nemuel” in v9 & “Nemuelites” in v12 & “Areli” in v17. 2x in OT. From yachal (to wait, which implies patience, hope, and trust; can also be pained waiting) + El (see note III above). This is Jahleel, meaning “wait for God” or “expectant of God” or “hope of God.” See
CXXX “Jahleelites” = Yachleeli. Related to “Eleazar” in v1 & “Israelites” in v2 & “Eliab” in v8 & “Nemuel” in v9 & “Nemuelites” in v12 & “Areli” in v17 & “Jahleel” in v26. 1x in OT. From Yachleel (see note CXXIX above). This is a Jahleelite, someone descended from Jahleel.
CXXXI “Zebulunites” = Zebuloni. Related to “Zebulun” in v26. 3x in OT. From Zebulun (see note CXXIV above). This is a Zebulunite, someone descended from Zebulun.

28 The sons of JosephCXXXII by their clans: ManassehCXXXIII and Ephraim.CXXXIV 29 The descendants of Manasseh: of Machir,CXXXV the clan of the Machirites;CXXXVI

Notes on verses 28-29a

CXXXII “Joseph” = Yoseph. From yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”
CXXXIII “Manasseh” = Menashsheh. From nashah (to forget, neglect, remove, deprive). This is Manasseh, literally “causing to forget.” It is Manasseh, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
CXXXIV “Ephraim” = Ephrayim. From the same as epher (ashes or dust – properly something strewn) OR from parah (to grow, increase, be fruitful in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, his descendants, and their land.
CXXXV “Machir” = Makir. From makar (to sell – could be commerce/trade, a daughter to be married, someone into slavery; figuratively, to surrender). This is Machir or Makir, it is a name meaning “salesman.”
CXXXVI “Machirites” = Makiri. Related to “Machir” in v29. 1x in OT. From Makir (see note CXXXV above). This is a Machirite, someone descended from Machir.

and Machir was the father ofCXXXVII Gilead;CXXXVIII of Gilead, the clan of the Gileadites.CXXXIX 

Notes on verse 29b

CXXXVII “was the father of” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.
CXXXVIII “Gilead” = Gilad. Related to “congregation” in v2. From gala (to lay bare, quarrel, expose) OR from gal’ed (heap of testimony); {from gal (wave, billow, rock pile; something rolled; a spring of water); {from galal (to roll, roll away, wallow, commit, remove; rolling in a literal or figurative sense)} + ed (see note IX above)}}. This is Gilead, meaning “perpetual fountain” or “heap of testimony.” See
CXXXIX “Gileadites” = Giladi. Related to “congregation” in v2 & “Gilead” in v29. 11x in OT. From Gilad (see note CXXXVIII above). This is a Gileadite, someone descended from Gilead or who lives in Gilead.

30 These are the descendants of Gilead: of Iezer,CXL the clan of the Iezerites;CXLI of Helek,CXLII the clan of the Helekites;CXLIII 

Notes on verse 30

CXL “Iezer” = Iezer. Related to “Eleazar” in v1. 1x in OT. From I (not, island); {probably related to ay (where, how, whether) or ayin (perhaps from a word that means to be nothing; nothing, none, non-existent; not or are not)} + ezer (help, aid, helper); {from azar (see note III above)}. This is Iezer, meaning “region of help” or “helpless” or “he will support” or “father is help” or “father of help.” See
CXLI “Iezerites” = Iezri. Related to “Eleazar” in v1 & “Iezer” in v30. 1x in OT. From Iezer (see note CXL above). This is an Iezrite, someone descended of Iezer.
CXLII “Helek” = Cheleq. 2x in OT. From the same as cheleq (a division, lot, inheritance, legacy, or portion; a smooth tongue); from chalaq (to be smooth in a figurative sense; can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute; figuratively, it can also mean to flatter). This is Helek or Cheleq, meaning “portion” or “smoothness.” See note
CXLIII “Helekites” = Chelqi. Related to “Helek” in v30. 1x in OT. From Cheleq (see note CXLII above). This is a Helekite, someone descended from Helek.

31 and of Asriel,CXLIV the clan of the Asrielites;CXLV and of Shechem,CXLVI the clan of the Shechemites;CXLVII 

Notes on verse 31

CXLIV “Asriel” = Asriel. Related to “Eleazar” in v1 & “Israelites” in v2 & “Eliab” in v8 & “Nemuel” in v9 & “Nemuelites” in v12 & “Areli” in v17 & “Jahleel” in and “Jahleelites” in v26. 3x in OT. Perhaps from Asarel (Asarel, Asareel; “right of God”); {from ashar (to go straight, lead, guide; to be level and so to be right, blessed, honest, happy) + El (see note III above)}. This is Asriel or Ashriel, meaning “God has filled with joy” or “vow of God.” See
CXLV “Asrielites” = Asrieli. Related to “Eleazar” in v1 & “Israelites” in v2 & “Eliab” in v8 & “Nemuel” in v9 & “Nemuelites” in v12 & “Areli” in v17 & “Jahleel” in and “Jahleelites” in v26 & “Asriel” in v31. 1x in OT. From Asriel (see note CXLIV above). This is an Asrielite, someone descended from Asriel.
CXLVI “Shechem” = Shekem. 3x in OT. From the same as shekem (shoulder, neck, or some other place that bears burdens; figuratively, the spur of a hill, or one’s allotted portion); from shakam (to rise early, begin work early; properly, this is leaning one’s shoulder or back into a load or a burden; also, loading an animal for work). This is Shechem, meaning “ridge.”
CXLVII “Shechemites” = Shikmi. Related to “Shechem” in v31. 1x in OT. From Shekem (see note CXLVI above). This is a Shechemite, someone descended from Shechem.

32 and of Shemida,CXLVIII the clan of the Shemidaites;CXLIX and of Hepher,CL the clan of the Hepherites.CLI 

Notes on verse 32

CXLVIII “Shemida” = Shemida. 3x in OT. From shem (name, fame, renown; indicates something essential about a person –about their individuality; can also mean honor, authority, or character); {perhaps from sum (to put, place, set)} + yada (to know, be aware, see and so understand – includes observation, care, recognition; can also be used as a euphemism). This is Shemida, meaning “name of knowing” or “knowing the name” or “fame of knowledge” or “the name knows” or “fame of knowing” or “the name knows” or “having knowledge of the whole of creation.” See
CXLIX “Shemidaites” = Shemidai. Related to “Shemida” in v32. From Shemida (see note CXLVIII above). This is a Shemidaite, someone descended from Shemida.
CL “Hepher” = Chepher. 9x in OT. From chaphar (properly to pry into; to dig search for, sink, or explore) or chapher (to be ashamed, disgraced, embarrassed, confounded – to blush). This is Hepher or Chepher, meaning “pit of shame” or “dig” or “shame” or “well” or “pit.” See
CLI “Hepherites” = Chephri. Related to “Hepher” in v32. 1x in OT. From Chepher (see note CL above). This is a Hepherite, someone descended from Hepher.

33 Now ZelophehadCLII son of Hepher hadCLIII no sons, only daughters,CLIV and the namesCLV

Notes on verse 33a

CLII “Zelophehad” = Tselophchad. 11x in OT. Perhaps from the same as Tsalaph (Tsalaph or Zalaph; perhaps meaning “caper-plant” or “fracture”) + echad (number one, first, united; alone, altogether, a certain, a few); {from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts)} OR from tsel (shade in a literal or figurative sense; shadow, shade, protection, shelter, or defense); {from tsalal (to be or become dark, shade; this is the shade as during twilight or shadow as associated with something opaque)} + pachad (to dread, be afraid, thrill, be in awe; feeling startled from a sudden sound or alarm). This is Zelophehad or Tselophchad, meaning “first rupture” or “firstborn” or “shadow of the fear” See  &
CLIII “had” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLII above.
CLIV “daughters” = bat. Related to {untranslated} in v1 & “houses” in v2 & “Reuben” in v5 & “Reubenites” in v7. From ben (see note IV above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
CLV “names” = shem. Related to “Shemida” and “Shemidaites” in v32. May be from sum (see note CXLVIII above). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.

of the daughters of Zelophehad were Mahlah,CLVI Noah,CLVII Hoglah,CLVIII Milcah,CLIX and Tirzah.CLX 34 These are the clans of Manasseh; the number of those enrolled was fifty-two thousand seven hundred.

Notes on verses 33b-34

CLVI “Mahlah” = Machlah. 5x in OT. Perhaps from chalah (to be worn; hence, being weak, sick, or afflicted; to grieve or, positively, to flatter or entreat). This is Mahlah or Machlah, meaning “sickness” or “disease” or “entreaty.” See
CLVII “Noah” = Noah. 4x in OT. From nua (to waver in a literal or figurative sense; to tremble, quiver, totter; a fugitive). This is Noah, meaning “movement” or “shaky girl” or “lady wanderer.” See
CLVIII “Hoglah” = Choglah. 4x in OT. Perhaps from chagal (to wobble, hop). This is Hoglah or Choglah, perhaps meaning “partridge.” See
CLIX “Milcah” = Milchah. 11x in OT. From malkah (queen); from melek (king, royal). This is Milcah or Milkah, meaning “queen.”
CLX “Tirzah” = Tirtsah. 18x in OT. From ratsah (to be pleased with, delight, take pleasure in, or accept with favor; to approve or consent regarding something; can be used specifically of satisfying debts or being pardoned). This is Tirzah or Tirtsah, meaning “delight” or “pleasantness” or “pleasure” or “beauty.” See  

35 These are the descendants of Ephraim according to their clans: of Shuthelah,CLXI the clan of the Shuthelahites;CLXII of Becher,CLXIII the clan of the Becherites;CLXIV

Notes on verse 35a

CLXI “Shuthelah” = Shuthelach. 4x in OT. Perhaps from sha’ah (to make a loud noise or crash, devastate, rush) + the same as Telach (Telah or Telach, may come from a word that means to dissever or breach). This is Shuthelah or Shuthelach, perhaps meaning “crash of breakage.”
CLXII “Shuthelahites” = Shuthelahi. Related to “Shuthelah” in v35. From Shuthelach (see note CLXI above). This is a Shuthelahite, someone descended from Shuthelah.
CLXIII “Becher” = Beker. Related to “firstborn” in v5. 5x in OT. From bakar (see note XXX above). This is Becher or Beker, meaning “firstborn” or “young camel” or “camel calf” or “rise early” or “born first.” See
CLXIV “Becherites” = Bakri. Related to “firstborn” in v5 & “Becher” in v35. 1x in OT. From Beker (see note CLXIII above). This is a Becherite, someone descended from Becher.

of Tahan,CLXV the clan of the Tahanites.CLXVI 36 And these are the descendants of Shuthelah: of Eran,CLXVII the clan of the Eranites.CLXVIII 37 These are the clans of the EphraimitesCLXIX by the number of those enrolled: thirty-two thousand five hundred. These are the descendants of Joseph by their clans.

Notes on verses 35b-37

CLXV “Tahan” = Tachan. 2x in OT. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle) OR chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is Tahan or Tachan, meaning “station” or “encampment” or “favor” or “supplication.” See
CLXVI “Tahanites” = Tachani. Related to “Tahan” in v35. 1x in OT. From Tachan (see note CLXV above). This is a Tahanite, someone descended from Tahan.
CLXVII “Eran” = Eran. Related to “Eri” and “Erites” in v16 & “Er” in v19. 1x in OT. From ur (see note XCII above). This is Eran, meaning “watchful” or “alert” or “focused.” See
CLXVIII “Eranites” = Erani. Related to “Eri” and “Erites” in v16 & “Er” in v19 & “Eran” in v36. From Eran (see note CLXVII above). This is an Eranite, someone descended from Eran.
CLXIX “Ephraimites” = ben + Ephrayim. Literally, “children of Ephraim.” Ben is the same as {untranslated} in v1. See note IV above. Ephrayim is the same as “Ephraim” in v28. See note CXXXIV above.

38 The descendants of BenjaminCLXX by their clans: of Bela,CLXXI the clan of the Belaites;CLXXII

Notes on verse 38a

CLXX “Benjamin” = Binyamin. Related to {untranslated} in v1 & “houses” in v2 & “Reuben” in v5 & “Reubenites” in v7 & “daughters” in v33 & rel to “Jamin” and “Jaminites” in v12. From ben (see note IV above) + from yamin (see note LXXIII above). This is Benjamin, meaning “son of the right hand.” It could refer to Benjamin himself, his offspring, their tribe, or their territory.
CLXXI “Bela” = Bela. Related to “swallowed…up” in v10. 14x in OT. From the same as bela (swallowing, gulp, destruction); from bala (see note LXI above). This is Bela, a personal name as well as a place name. It may mean “swallowed” or “destruction.”
CLXXII “Belaites” = Bali. Related to “swallowed…up” in v10 & “Bela” in v38. From Bela (see note CLXXI above). This is a Belaite, someone descended from Bela.

of Ashbel,CLXXIII the clan of the Ashbelites;CLXXIV of Ahiram,CLXXV the clan of the Ahiramites;CLXXVI 

Notes on verse 38b

CLXXIII “Ashbel” = Ashbel. 3x in OT. Probably from the same as shobel (the train of a skirt that flows after a woman) OR from esh (fire, burning, flaming, hot; fire in a literal or figurative sense) + baal (lord, owner, ally, master, or archer); {from ba’al (to marry, have dominion, be master)}. This is Ashbel, a name meaning “flowing,” “fire of Bel,” or “fire-lord.” See
CLXXIV “Ashbelites” = Ashbeli. Related to “Ashbel” in v38. 1x in OT. From Ashbel (see note CLXXIII above). This is an Ashbelite, someone descended from Ashbel.
CLXXV “Ahiram” = Achiram. Related to “Abiram” in v9. 1x in OT. From ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like) + rum (see note LIII above). This is Ahiram or Achiram, meaning “brother of the lofty” or “brother of height” or “high”
CLXXVI “Ahiramites” = Achirami. Related to “Abiram” in v9 & “Ahiram” in v38. 1x in OT. From Achiram (see note CLXXV above). This is an Ahiramite, someone descended from Achiram.

39 of Shephupham,CLXXVII the clan of the Shuphamites;CLXXVIII of Hupham,CLXXIX the clan of the Huphamites.CLXXX 

Notes on verse 39

CLXXVII “Shephupham” = Shephupham. 2x in OT. From the same as shephiphon (horned viper, adder); related to shuph (to gape, bruise, overwhelm, snape at, or cover). This is Shephupham, meaning “serpent-like” or “burrowing snake” or “serpent.” See
CLXXVIII “Shuphamites” = Shuphami. 1x in OT. From Shephupham (see note CLXXVII above). This is a Shuphamite, descended from Shephpuham.
CLXXIX “Hupham” = Chupham. 1x in OT. Perhaps from the same as choph (a shore, cove, or haven); from chaphaph (to surround, cover, or shield; to surround in order to protect). This is Hupham or Chupham, meaning “protection” or “inhabitant of the sea shore.” See
CLXXX “Huphamites” = Chuphami. Related to “Hupham” in v39. 1x in OT. From Chupham (see note CLXXIX). This is a Huphamite, someone descended from Hupham.

40 And the sons of Bela were ArdCLXXXI and Naaman:CLXXXII of Ard, the clan of the Ardites;CLXXXIII of Naaman, the clan of the Naamites.CLXXXIV 41 These are the descendants of Benjamin by their clans; the number of those enrolled was forty-five thousand six hundred.

Notes on verses 40-41

CLXXXI “Ard” = Ard. 2x in OT. This is Ard, which may come from a word that means to wander. It means “fugitive” or “humpbacked.” See
CLXXXII “Naaman” = Naaman. 16x in OT. From naem (to be pleasant, beautiful, sweet, or agreeable in a literal or figurative sense). This is Naaman, meaning “pleasantness” or “pleasant.”
CLXXXIII “Ardites” = Ardi. Related to “Ard” in v40. 1x in OT. From Ard (see note CLXXXI above). This is an Ardite, someone descended from Ard.
CLXXXIV “Naamites” = Naami. Related to “Naaman” in v40. 1x in OT. From Naaman (see note CLXXXII above). This is Naamite, someone descended from Naaman.

42 These are the descendants of DanCLXXXV by their clans: of Shuham,CLXXXVI the clan of the Shuhamites.CLXXXVII These are the clans of Dan by their clans. 43 AllCLXXXVIII the clans of the Shuhamites by the number of those enrolled: sixty-four thousand four hundred.

Notes on verses 42-43

CLXXXV “Dan” = Dan. From din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, quarrel, plead). This is Dan or a Danite. It means “judge” and can refer to Dan, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
CLXXXVI “Shuham” = Shucham. 1x in OT. From shuach (to bow or sink down in a literal or figurative sense, humble). This is Shuham or Shucham, meaning “humbly” or “depression” or “pit-digger.” See
CLXXXVII “Shuhamites” = Shuchami. Related to “Shuham” in v42. 2x in OT. From Shucham (see note CLXXXVI above). This is a Shuhamite, someone descended from Shuham.
CLXXXVIII “all” = kol. Same as “whole” in v2. See note VIII above.

44 The descendants of AsherCLXXXIX by their clans: of Imnah,CXC the clan of the Imnites;CXCI

Notes on verse 44a

CLXXXIX “Asher” = Asher. Related to “Asriel” and “Asrielites” in v31. From ashar (see note CXLIV above). This is Asher, one of Jacob’s children and his tribe. It means “happy one.”
CXC “Imnah” = Yimnah. Related to “Jamin” and “Jaminites” in v12 & “Benjamin” in v38. 5x in OT. From the same as yamin (see note LXXIII above). This is Yimnah, meaning “good fortune” or “prosperity” or “right hand side.” See
CXCI “Imnites” = Yimnah. Same as “Imnah” in v44. See note CXC above.

of Ishvi,CXCII the clan of the Ishvites;CXCIII of Beriah,CXCIV the clan of the Beriites.CXCV 

Notes on verse 44b

CXCII “Ishvi” = Yishvi. Related to “men” in v10 & related to “Lord” in v1. & {untranslated} in v7. 4x in OT. From shavah (to equalize, resemble, agree with, compare, adjust, compose, place, or yield) OR ish (see note LXVI above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note I above)}. This is Yishvi or Ishvi, meaning “level” or “equal” or “man of the Lord.” See
CXCIII “Ishvites” = Yishvi. Related to “Ishvi” in v44. 1x in OT. From Yishvi (see note CXCII above). This is an Ishvite, someone descended from Ishvi.
CXCIV “Beriah” = Beriah. 11x in OT. Perhaps from ra’ (bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity; anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin); from ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is Beriah, a name meaning, “in trouble” or “in evil.” See
CXCV “Beriites” = Berii. Related to “Beriah” in v44. 1x in OT. From Beriah (see note CXCIV above). This is a Beriite, someone descended from Beriah.

45 Of the descendants of Beriah: of Heber,CXCVI the clan of the Heberites;CXCVII of Malchiel,CXCVIII the clan of the Malchielites.CXCIX 46 And the name of the daughter of Asher was Serah.CC 47 These are the clans of the descendants of Asher by the number of those enrolled: fifty-three thousand four hundred.

Notes on verses 45-47

CXCVI “Heber” = Cheber. 11x in OT. From chabar (to unite, ally, attach, touch; to join in a literal or figurative sense; also, specially, using magic knots or spells to fascinate or connect). This is Heber of Cheber, a name meaning, “community,” “fellowship,” “associate,” or “companion.” See
CXCVII “Heberites” = Chebri. Related to “Heber” in v45. 1x in OT. From Cheber (see note CXCVI above). This is a Heberite, someone descended from Heber.
CXCVIII “Malchiel” = Malkiel. Related to “Milcah” in v33 & related to “Eleazar” in v1 & “Israelites” in v2 & “Eliab” in v8 & “Nemuel” in v9 & “Nemuelites” in v12 & “Areli” in v17 & “Jahleel” in and “Jahleelites” in v26 & “Asriel” and “Asrielites” in v31. 3x in OT. From melek (see note CLIX above) + El (see note III above). This is Malkiel or Malchiel, meaning “my king is El” or “king appointed by God” or “God is King” or “my king is God.” See
CXCIX “Malchielites” = Malkieli. Related to “Milcah” in v33 and “Malchiel” in v45 & related to “Eleazar” in v1 & “Israelites” in v2 & “Eliab” in v8 & “Nemuel” in v9 & “Nemuelites” in v12 & “Areli” in v17 & “Jahleel” in and “Jahleelites” in v26 & “Asriel” and “Asrielites” in v31 & “Malchiel” in v45. 1x in OT. From Malkiel (see note CXCVIII above). This is a Malchielite, someone descended from Malchiel.
CC “Serah” = Serach. Related to “Israelites” in v2. 3x in OT.From the same as misrah (rule, government, empire); {from sarah (see note X above)} OR from serach (remnant, redundance, overage); {from sarach (to overrun, spread, extend, banish, go free)}. This is Serah, whose name may mean, “princess,” “ruling body,” unrestrained,” or “abundance.”

48 The descendants of NaphtaliCCI by their clans: of Jahzeel,CCII the clan of the Jahzeelites;CCIII of Guni,CCIV the clan of the Gunites;CCV 

Notes on verse 48

CCI “Naphtali” = Naphtali. From pathal (to twist, twine, wrestle, struggle, behave in an unsavory way). This is Naphtali, meaning “my wrestling.” It can refer to Naphtali, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
CCII “Jahzeel” = Yachtseel. Related to “Eleazar” in v1 & “Israelites” in v2 & “Eliab” in v8 & “Nemuel” in v9 & “Nemuelites” in v12 & “Areli” in v17 & “Jahleel” in and “Jahleelites” in v26 & “Asriel” and “Asrielites” in v31 & “Malchiel” in and “Malchielites” in v45. 2x in OT. From chatsah (to halve, divide, reach, participate) + El (see note III above). This is Jahzeel, meaning “God apportions” or “God will allot” or “God divides.” See
CCIII “Jahzeelites” = Yachtseeli. Related to “Eleazar” in v1 & “Israelites” in v2 & “Eliab” in v8 & “Nemuel” in v9 & “Nemuelites” in v12 & “Areli” in v17 & “Jahleel” in and “Jahleelites” in v26 & “Asriel” and “Asrielites” in v31 & “Malchiel” in and “Malchielites” in v45 & “Jahzeel” in v48. 1x in OT. From Yachtseel (see note CCII above). This is a Jahzeelite, someone descended from Jahzeel.
CCIV “Guni” = Guni. 4x in OT. Probably from ganan (to surround, cover, defend, protect). This is Guni, a name meaning, “protected,” “colored,” “my garden,” or “gardenesque.” See
CCV “Gunites” = Guni. Related to “Guni” in v48. 1x in OT. From Guni (see note CCIV above). This is a Gunite, someone descended from Guni.

49 of Jezer,CCVI the clan of the Jezerites;CCVII of Shillem,CCVIII the clan of the Shillemites.CCIX 50 These are the clans of Naphtali by their clans; the number of those enrolled was forty-five thousand four hundred.

51 This was the number of the Israelites enrolled: six hundred and one thousand seven hundred thirty.

Notes on verses 49-51

CCVI “Jezer” = Yetser. 3x in OT. From yatsar (to fashion or form, perhaps by squeezing something into a shape or form; to create as a potter does; figuratively, to determine). This is Jezer or Yetzer. It is a name meaning “form,” “shape,” or “purpose.” See
CCVII “Jezerites” = Yitsri. Related to “Jezer” in v49. 2x in OT. From yatsar (see note CCVI above). This is Jezerites or Izri. The name meaning “form” or “shape.”
CCVIII “Shillem” = Shillem. 2x in OT. From the same as shillem (recompense, retribution); from shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is Shillem, a name meaning, “requital,” “retribution,” or “peace.” See
CCIX “Shillemites” = Shillemi. Related to “Shillem” in v49. 1x in OT. From Shillem (see note CCVIII above). This is a Shillemite, someone who is descended from Shillem.

52 The Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 53 “To these the land shall be apportionedCCX for inheritanceCCXI according to the numberCCXII of names. 

Notes on verses 52-53

CCX “apportioned” = chalaq. Related to “Helek” and “Helekites” in v30. See note CXLII above.
CCXI “inheritance” = nachalah. Related to nachal (to inherit, occupy, distribute, take as heritage). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.
CCXII “number” = mispar. From the same as sepher (writing itself or something that is written like a document, book, letter, evidence, bill, scroll, or register); from saphar (to tally or record something; to enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare). This is a number, whether definite or symbolic – could be innumerable, few, abundance. It can also be a tally or account – or a narration.

54 To a largeCCXIII tribe you shall give a largeCCXIV inheritance, and to a smallCCXV tribe you shall give a smallCCXVI inheritance;

Notes on verse 54a

CCXIII “large” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
CCXIV “give a large” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
CCXV “small” = me’at. From ma’at (being or becoming small, decrease, diminish, pare off). This is a little or few, lightly little while, very small matter.
CCXVI “give a small” = maat. Related to “small” in v54. See note CCXV above.

everyCCXVII tribe shall be givenCCXVIII its inheritance according toCCXIX its enrollment.CCXX 

Notes on verse 54b

CCXVII “every” = ish. Same as “men” in v10. See note LXVI above.
CCXVIII “given” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
CCXIX “according to” = peh. Same as “mouth” in v10. See note LX above.
CCXX “enrollment” = paqad. Same as “number…enrolled” in v7. See note XLIII above.

55 ButCCXXI the land shall be apportioned by lot;CCXXII according to the names of their ancestral tribesCCXXIII they shall inherit.CCXXIV 

Notes on verse 55

CCXXI “but” = ak. Related to “Jachin” and “Jachinites” in v12. Related to aken (surely, truly, nevertheless); from kun (see note LXXV above). This is a positive statement – surely, also, certainly, alone, only.
CCXXII “lot” = goral. Root may mean to be rough like a stone. A lot was probably a small pebble used to determine one’s portion or what one should do (the will of a god or one’s destiny).
CCXXIII “tribes” = matteh. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).
CCXXIV “inherit” = nachal. Related to “inheritance” in v53. See note CCXI above.

56 Their inheritance shall be apportioned according to lot betweenCCXXV the largerCCXXVI and the smaller.”CCXXVII

57 This is the enrollmentCCXXVIII of the LevitesCCXXIX by their clans: of Gershon,CCXXX the clan of the Gershonites;CCXXXI

Notes on verses 56-57a

CCXXV “between” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
CCXXVI “larger” = rab. Same as “large” in v54. See note CCXIII above.
CCXXVII “smaller” = me’at. Same as “small” in v54. See note CCXV above.
CCXXVIII “is the enrollment” = paqad. Same as “number…enrolled” in v7. See note XLIII above.
CCXXIX “Levites” = Levi. From Levi (Levi; perhaps meaning “attached”; Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants); perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levite or levitical.
CCXXX “Gershon” = Gereshon. 17x in OT. From garash (to cast out or expel; to exile someone or to divorce them). Gerson is a personal name, meaning “refugee,” “exiled one.” See
CCXXXI “Gershonites” = Gereshunni. Related to “Gershon” in v57. 13x in OT. From Gereshon (see note CCXXX above).

of Kohath,CCXXXII the clan of the Kohathites;CCXXXIII of Merari,CCXXXIV the clan of the Merarites.CCXXXV 

Notes on verse 57b

CCXXXII “Kohath” = Qehath. Perhaps from a root meaning to ally OR from yaqa (to obey, be pious) OR qavah (to wait, look, gather together, bind together, collect; figuratively, to expect). This is Kohath, perhaps meaning “allied,” “obedience,” “gathering,” or “congregation.” See
CCXXXIII “Kohathites” = Qehathi. Related to “Kohath” in v57. 15x in OT. From Qehath (see note CCXXXII above).
CCXXXIV “Merari” = Merari. From marar (to be bitter, embittered, weep, troubled). This is Merari, a name meaning “bitterness,” “bitter,” or “my strength.” See
CCXXXV “Merarites” = Merari. Related to “Merari” in v57. 1x in OT. From Merari (see note CCXXXIV above). This is a Merarite, someone who is descended from Merari.

58 These are the clans of Levi: the clan of the Libnites,CCXXXVI the clan of the Hebronites,CCXXXVII the clan of the Mahlites,CCXXXVIII the clan of the Mushites,CCXXXIX the clan of the Korahites.CCXL

Notes on verse 58a

CCXXXVI “Libnites” = Libni. 2x in OT. From Libniy (Libni, “white”); from laben (to be or make white, to make bricks). This is Libnite, someone descended from Libni.
CCXXXVII “Hebronites” = Chebroni. Related to “Heber” and “Heberites” in v45. 6x in OT. From Chebron (Hebron, meaning “seat of association” or “league”); from chabar (see note CXCVI above). This is Hebronite, someone who lives in Hebron.
CCXXXVIII “Mahlites” = Machli. Related to “Mahlah” in v33. 2x in OT. From Machli (Mahli or Machli, “sick”); from chalah (see note CLVI above). This is a Mahlite, meaning descended from Mahli.
CCXXXIX “Mushites” = Mushi. 2x in OT. From Mushi (Mushi, “sensitive”); from mush (to feel, touch). This is Mushite, meaning descended from Mushi.
CCXL “Korahites” = Qorchi. Related to “Korah” in v9. 8x in OT. From Qorach (see note LVII above). This is Korahite or Korah, meaning descended from Korah.

Now Kohath was the father of Amram.CCXLI 59 The name of Amram’s wifeCCXLII was JochebedCCXLIII daughter of Levi,CCXLIV

Notes on verses 58b-59a

CCXLI “Amram” = Amram. 14x in OT. From the same as Omri (Omri, a name meaning “heaping”); {from amar (to bind sheaves, heap)} OR from am (people or nation; a tribe, troops or armies; figuratively, a flock of animals); {from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together)} + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense). This is Amram, a name meaning “high people” or “riveted” or “enthralled” or “people of exaltation” or “a people exalted” or “long lives” or “worshippings.” See
CCXLII “wife” = ishshah. Related to “men” in v10 & “Issachar” in v23 & “Ishvi” in v44. From ish (see note LXVI above). This is woman, wife, or female.
CCXLIII “Jochebed” = Yokebed. Related to “Lord” in v1 & {untranslated} in v7. 2x in OT. From YHVH (see note I above) + kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is Jochebed or Yokebed, meaning “the Lord is glory” or “The Lord gives weight” or “The Lord is impressive” or “the Lord of glory” or “glory of the Lord.” See
CCXLIV “Levi” = Levi. Related to “Levites” in v57. See note CCXXIX above.

who was bornCCXLV to LeviCCXLVI in Egypt, and she bore to Amram: Aaron, Moses, and their sisterCCXLVII Miriam.CCXLVIII 

Notes on verse 59b

CCXLV “was born” = yalad. Same as “was the father of” in v29. See note CXXXVII above.
CCXLVI “Levi” = Levi. Same as “Levi” in v59. See note CCXLIV above.
CCXLVII “sister” = achot. Related to “Abiram” in v9 & “Ahiram” and “Ahiramites” in v38. From the same as ach (see note CLXXV above). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean another or together.
CCXLVIII “Miriam” = Miryam. 15x in OT. From marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam.

60 To Aaron were born Nadab,CCXLIX Abihu,CCL Eleazar, and Ithamar.CCLI 

Notes on verse 60

CCXLIX “Nadab” = Nadab. From nadab (to offer voluntarily, incite, impel; to volunteer to be a soldier or offer freely). This is Nadab, a name meaning “liberal” or “willing” or “volunteer” or “generous” or “noble.” See
CCL “Abihu” = Abihu. Related to “ancestral” in v2 & “Moab” in v3 & “Eliab” in v8 & “Abiram” in v9. 12x in OT. From ab (see note XV above) + hu (third person pronoun – he, she, it). This is Abihu, a name meaning “he is father” or “worshipper of God.” See 
CCLI “Ithamar” = Ithamar. From i (coastland, island, or region. It is a desirable place to live – dry land, coast); {perhaps from avah (to desire, crave, wish for, lust after)} + tamar (root may mean being erect; a date palm or other palm tree; the root of Tamar’s name); {from the same as tomer (palm tree, the trunk of that tree, a post)}. This is Ithamar, a name meaning “land of palms” or “coast of the palm tree” or “palm coast.” See

61 But Nadab and Abihu diedCCLII when they offeredCCLIII unholyCCLIV fire beforeCCLV the Lord. 

Notes on verse 61

CCLII “died” = mut. Same as “die” in v11. See note LXX above.
CCLIII “offered” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
CCLIV “unholy” = zur. This is to come from somewhere else – a stranger. It is to stop for lodging. Figuratively, it can also mean to profane or commit adultery.
CCLV “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

62 The number of those enrolled was twenty-three thousand, everyCCLVI maleCCLVII one monthCCLVIII old and up, for they were not enrolled amongCCLIX the Israelites because there was no allotmentCCLX given to them amongCCLXI the Israelites.

Notes on verse 62

CCLVI “every” = kol. Same as “whole” in v2. See note VIII above.
CCLVII “male” = zakar. From zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention). This is male. Properly, perhaps, it means one who is remembered, which is to say a male.
CCLVIII “month” = chodesh. From chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.
CCLIX “among” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
CCLX “allotment” = nachalah. Same as “inheritance” in v53. See note CCXI above.
CCLXI “among” = tavek. Same as “among” in v62. See note CCLIX above.

63 These were those enrolled by Moses and Eleazar the priest, who enrolled the Israelites in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho. 64 Among these there was not oneCCLXII of those enrolled by Moses and Aaron the priest, who had enrolled the Israelites in the wildernessCCLXIII of Sinai.CCLXIV 

Notes on verses 63-64

CCLXII “one” = ish. Same as “men” in v10. See note LXVI above.
CCLXIII “wilderness” = midbar. Related to “spoke” in v3. From dabar (see note XX above). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
CCLXIV “Sinai” = Sinay. Probably from the same as Sin (Sin, a city meaning “clay” or “bush); {perhaps from asam (to gather, store) OR from seneh (thorn bush) OR related to Aramaic siyn (a god called Sin) OR perhaps Hebrew siyn (related to mud or clay)}. This is Sinai – a place whose name may mean “bush of the Lord” or “muddy.” See

65 For the Lord had said of them, “They shall dieCCLXV in the wilderness.” Not one of them was left,CCLXVI except CalebCCLXVII

Notes on verse 65a

CCLXV “die” = mut + mut. Same as “die” in v11. See note LXX above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CCLXVI “was left” = yathar. This is to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel. It can be to leave or to be in abundance.
CCLXVII “Caleb” = Kaleb. From the same as keleb (a dog, male prostitute; perhaps from a word meaning to yelp or attack). This is Caleb or Kaleb, meaning “dog” or “unsophisticated servant.” See

son of JephunnehCCLXVIII and JoshuaCCLXIX son of Nun.CCLXX

Notes on verse 65b

CCLXVIII “Jephunneh” = Yephunneh. Related to “before” in v61. 16x in OT. From panah (see note CCLV above). This is Jephunneh or Yephunneh, meaning “he will be prepared” or “he will turn to” or “he will face” or “he will be beheld.” See
CCLXIX “Joshua” = Yehoshua. Related to “Lord” in v1 & {untranslated} in v7 & “Jochebed” in v59. From YHVH (see note I above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Joshua, Jeshua, or Yehoshua, which means “the Lord is salvation.”
CCLXX “Nun” = Nun. From nun (to propagate, continue, resprout, be perpetual). This is Nun or Non, meaning “perpetuity.”

Image credit: “Statue in Sanctuary of Nossa Senhora do Sameiro, Braga, Portugal.” Photo by Joseolgon, 2013.

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