Philippians 1:1-18a

Philippians 1:1-18a
Narrative Lectionary 444


PaulI and Timothy,II servantsIII of ChristIV Jesus,V

Notes on verse 1a

I “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
II “Timothy” = Timoutheou. From time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; can be esteem or dignity; precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)} + theos (God or a god). This is Timothy, literally “dear to God.”
III “servants” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
IV “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
V “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

To allVI the saintsVII in Christ Jesus who are in Philippi,VIII with the bishopsIX and deacons:X

Notes on verse 1b

VI “all” = pas. This is all or every.
VII “saints” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
VIII “Philippi” = Philippoi. 4x in NT. From Philippos (Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses); {from philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse)}. This is Philippi, a city in Macedonia.
IX “bishops” = episkopos. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully)}. This is an overseer, supervisor, guardian, or ruler. It is a civic title and also one used in the church – a bishop. It is where the word “episcopal” comes from.
X “deacons” = diakonos. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is a servant, minister, waiter, or attendant. It is used for a person who performs a service, including religious service. This is the root of the word “deacon.”

GraceXI to you and peaceXII from GodXIII our FatherXIV and the LordXV Jesus Christ.

Notes on verse 2

XI “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
XII “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
XIII “God” = Theos. Related to “Timothy” in v1. See note II above.
XIV “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XV “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

I thankXVI my God everyXVII time I rememberXVIII you, 

Notes on verse 3

XVI “thank” = eucharisteo. Related to “grace” in v2. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + charis (see note XI above). This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.
XVII “every” = pas. Same as “all” in v1. See note VI above.
XVIII “remember” = mneia. 7x in NT– all uses in epistles for remembering you in prayers and 1x to remember us kindly (1 Th 3:6). From mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). Properly, this is bringing someone or something to mind or mentioning them. It can also be a memory or commemoration. Further, it can be a specific focus on an aspect of someone or something.

constantlyXIX prayingXX with joyXXI in every one of my prayersXXII for all of you, 

Notes on verse 4

XIX “constantly” = pantote. Related to “all” in v1. From pas (see note VI above) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
XX “praying” = deesis + poieo. Deesis is the same as “prayers” in v4. See note XXII below. Poieo is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XXI “joy” = chara. Related to “grace” in v2 & “thank” in v3. From chairo (see note XI above). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
XXII “prayers” = deesis. Related to “servants” in v1. 18x in NT. From deomai (having an urgent need because one is missing or needing something so it is an earnest appeal or pressing request); from deo (see note III above). This is a request coming from a deep personal need or want. So, it is supplication or prayer.

because of your sharingXXIII in the gospelXXIV from the firstXXV dayXXVI until now. 

Notes on verse 5

XXIII “sharing” = koinonia. 19x in NT. From koinonos (partner, companion, partaker, sharer); From koinos (common, shared, unclean, ritually profane); probably from sun (with, together with). This is sharing in common so it is fellowship, participation, communion, and aid that comes from the community.
XXIV “gospel” = euaggelion. Related to “thank” in v3. From eu (see note XVI above) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel); {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
XXV “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
XXVI “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.

I am confidentXXVII of this, that the one who beganXXVIII a goodXXIX workXXX among you will bring it to completionXXXI by the day of Jesus Christ. 

Notes on verse 6

XXVII “am confident” = peitho. This is to have confidence, to urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust. It is the root from which the Greek word for faith is drawn (pistis).
XXVIII “began” = enarchomai. 2x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin.
XXIX “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
XXX “work” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.
XXXI “bring…to completion” = epiteleo. 10x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}. This is to complete or make perfect, execute, accomplish, undergo or finish.

It is rightXXXII for me to thinkXXXIII this way about all of you, because you holdXXXIV me in your heart,XXXV 

Notes on verse 7a

XXXII “right” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
XXXIII “think” = phroneo. From phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action.
XXXIV “hold” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
XXXV “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

for all of you shareXXXVI in God’s grace with me, both in my imprisonmentXXXVII and in the defenseXXXVIII and confirmationXXXIX of the gospel. 

Notes on verse 7b

XXXVI “share” = sugkoinonos. Related to “sharing” In v5. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + koinonos (see note XXIII above) This is co-partner, someone with whom you share something together – a close companion.
XXXVII “imprisonment” = desmos. Literally, “my chains.” Related to “servants” in v1 & “prayers” in v4. 18x in NT. From deo (see note III above). This is a chain, bond, infirmity, impediment.
XXXVIII “defense” = apologia. 8x in NT. From apologeomai (to make an accounting or defend oneself – particularly in court; present prof or evidence using sound logic); {from apo (from, away from) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is a verbal defense, especially in a legal setting, that is well reasoned to respond to the issue at hand. It is an apology, clearing, plea, or vindication.
XXXIX “confirmation” = bebaiosis. 2x in NT. From bebaioo (secure, guarantee, reliable, firm, dependable; something you can put your trust in); from bebaios (properly, ground that is solid enough to walk over; firm, unshakable; figuratively, guaranteed, valid, sure, steadfast, enduring; literally and figuratively “solid footing”); from the same as basis (a step; hence, a foot, pace, or base); from baino (to walk or go). This is something that upholds or is validated. It is a confirmation.

For God is my witness,XL how I long forXLI all of you with the compassionXLII of Christ Jesus. 

Notes on verse 8

XL “witness” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.
XLI “long for” = epipotheo. 9x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + potheo (to yearn). This is to long for, greatly desire, or strain towards. It can also imply doting or a desire to possess something or someone, whether legitimately or wrongfully.
XLII “compassion” = splagchnon. 11x in NT. Perhaps from splen (spleen). This is inner organs, entrails, heart, liver. The guts were seen as the root of emotions. So, this could be visceral empathy or sympathy.

9 And this is my prayer,XLIII that your loveXLIV may overflowXLV moreXLVI and more

Notes on verse 9a

XLIII “is…prayer” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
XLIV “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
XLV “overflow” = perisseuo. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is more than what is ordinary or necessary. It is abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond. It is super-abounding in number or quality.
XLVI “more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.

with knowledgeXLVII and fullXLVIII insightXLIX 

Notes on verse 9b

XLVII “knowledge” = epignosis. From epiginosko (to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction) ; {from epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}. This is knowledge, intuition, or discernment. It is firsthand knowledge of someone or something gained through contact or experience. This is full discernment or true knowledge.
XLVIII “full” = pas. Same as “all” in v1. See note VI above.
XLIX “insight” = aisthesis. 1x in NT. From aisthanomai (to perceive – to understand using the senses); from aio (to perceive through the senses). This is understanding or discernment. It is using one’s perception to gain insight on unclear ethical matters.

10 to help you to determineL what is best,LI so that in the day of Christ you may be pureLII and blameless,LIII 

Notes on verse 10

L “determine” = dokimazo. From dokimos (what passes the test, approved, acceptable, genuine, verified); from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense) or dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion)}. This is to test, examine, prove. It is to approve after subjecting to a test to determine if it is real or acceptable. It is to test in a literal or figurative sense.
LI “is best” = diaphero. 13x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry through as in all the way to the end. It is differing or fully distinguishing – separating by comparison. Literally, it means transport – figuratively it can mean report or surpass.
LII “pure” = eilikrines. 2x in NT. Perhaps from heile (ray of the sun) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is unmixed or pure. It is something that is seen in the sunlight or full light and judged positively. It can also be a full light that brings insight or discernment.
LIII “blameless” = aproskopos. 3x in NT. From a (not, without) + proskopto (to kick against, stumble, strike, beat on, surge against like water does, or take offense; to trip up in a literal or figurative sense); {from pros (at, towards, for) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn)}. This is not stumbling, inoffensive, without fault, blameless. It can also be unharmed.

11 having producedLIV the harvestLV of righteousnessLVI that comes through Jesus Christ for the gloryLVII and praiseLVIII of God.

Notes on verse 11

LIV “produced” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
LV “harvest” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.
LVI “righteousness” = dikaiosune. Related to “right” in v7. From dikaios (see note XXXII above). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
LVII “glory” = doxa. Related to “determine” in v10. From dokeo (see note L above). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
LVIII “praise” = epainos. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, what is fitting) + ainos (praise, saying, story, proverb). This is fitting praise, fame, approval. It is recognizing something or someone that is deserving of praise.

12 I wantLIX you to know,LX beloved,LXI that what has happened to me has actuallyLXII helpedLXIII to spreadLXIV the gospel, 

Notes on verse 12

LIX “want” = boulomai. This is to wish, desire, intend. Also, to plan with great determination.
LX “know” = ginosko. Related to “knowledge” in v9. See note XLVII above.
LXI “beloved” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
LXII “actually” = mallon. Same as “more” in v9. See note XLVI above.
LXIII “helped” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
LXIV “spread” = prokope. Related to “blameless” in v10. 3x in NT. From prokopto (to advance, lead, proceed; to trailblaze while moving forward; other forms of advancing like time passing or profit increasing); {from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + kopto (see note LIII above)}. This is literally moving forward by clearing a path or chopping things down that are in the way. It was originally used to refer to pioneer and marching armies. Figuratively, it was used for other progress, furtherance, or profit, whether subjective or objective.

13 so that it has becomeLXV knownLXVI throughout the wholeLXVII

Notes on verse 13a

LXV “become” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LXVI “known” = phaneros. 18x in NT. From phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is visible, apparent, clear, shining.
LXVII “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”

imperial guardLXVIII and to everyoneLXIX elseLXX that my imprisonment is for Christ; 14 and mostLXXI of the brothersLXXII and sisters, 

Notes on verses 13b-14a

LXVIII “imperial guard” = praitorion. 8x in NT. From Latin praetorium (headquarters, general’s tent, villa, place where the governor lives); from prator (leader, chief, president); from pareeo (to lead, go before). This is praetorium or praetorian guard. It is the place where the governor lives or the place where the praetorian guard of Rome lived. It could also mean courtroom. See
LXIX “everyone” = pas. Same as “all” in v1. See note VI above.
LXX “else” = loipos. From leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.
LXXI “most” = pleion. From polus (much, many, abundant). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
LXXII “brothers” = adelphos. Same as “beloved” in v12. See note LXI above.

having been made confident in the Lord by my imprisonment, dare to speak the wordLXXIII, LXXIV with greaterLXXV boldnessLXXVI and without fear.LXXVII

Notes on verse 14b

LXXIII “word” = logos. Related to “defense” in v7. See note XXXVIII above.
LXXIV Some manuscripts add “of God” = ho + Theos. Theos is the same as “God” in v2. See note XIII above.
LXXV “greater” = perissos. Related to “overflow” in v9. 17x in NT. From perissos (see note XLV above). This is abundantly, exceedingly, far more, or all the more. This is going beyond what is anticipated or past the upper limit.
LXXVI “boldness” = tolmao. Related to “bring…to completion” in v6. 16x in NT. From tolma (boldness); perhaps from telos (see note XXXI above). This is to show courage to take a risk, to venture decisively, to put it on the line for something that matters.
LXXVII “without fear” = aphobos. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); {from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight)}. This is without fear or cause – also shamelessly, securely, fearlessly.

15 SomeLXXVIII proclaimLXXIX Christ from envyLXXX and rivalry,LXXXI but others from goodwill.LXXXII 

Notes on verse 15

LXXVIII {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
LXXIX “proclaim” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
LXXX “envy” = phthonos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); from phthio (perish, waste away). This is jealousy, spite, or ill-will. It can also be feeling glad when misfortune befalls another (akin to Schadenfreude).
LXXXI “rivalry” = eris. 9x in NT. This is strife, quarreling, wrangling. Figuratively, it is debate or one who likes to dispute.
LXXXII “goodwill” = eudokia. Related to “thank” in v3 & “gospel” in v5 & “determine” in v10 & “glory” in v11. 9x in NT. From eudokeo (to think well of, to be pleased or resolved; properly, what someone finds good or acceptable – approving of some action or generally thinking well of); {from eu (see note XVI above) + dokeo (see note L above). This is goodwill, favor, happiness, delight, satisfaction, or desire. It is something that a person finds good or of benefit.

16 TheseLXXXIII proclaim Christ out of love, knowingLXXXIV that I have been put hereLXXXV for the defense of the gospel; 

Notes on verse 16

LXXXIII {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note LXXVIII above.
LXXXIV “knowing” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
LXXXV “put here” = keimai. This is to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined. It is to lie down literally or figuratively.

17 the others proclaimLXXXVI Christ out of selfish ambition,LXXXVII not sincerelyLXXXVIII

Notes on verse 17a

LXXXVI “proclaim” = kataggello. Related to “gospel” in v5. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + aggello (see note XXIV above). This is to proclaim openly and confidently a very specific message. It can also be celebrate, preach, or teach.
LXXXVII “selfish ambition” = eritheia. Related to “rivalry” in v15. 7x in NT. From erithos (day-laborer); from eritheuo (work for hire) OR perhaps from the same as erethizo (to provoke, irritate, exasperate; to stir to anger); from eretho (to provoke to anger) or from eris (see note LXXXI above). This is ambition, dispute, selfishness, self-seeking, strife. It is work done for selfish or self-serving motivations. It can imply intrigue or a faction.
LXXXVIII “sincerely” = hagnos. Related to “saints” in v1. 1x in NT. From hagnos (see note VII above). This is purely, honestly, with sincere motives.

but intendingLXXXIX to increaseXC my sufferingXCI in my imprisonment. 

Notes on verse 17b

LXXXIX “intending” = oiomai. 3x in NT. Perhaps from hoios (such as, what kind of); from ho (the)}. This is to suppose, think, imagine, intend, expect.
XC “increase” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XCI “suffering” = thlipsis. From thlibo (to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict; figuratively to oppress or afflict). This is pressure that hems us in – used often of internal pressure that makes us feel like we have no other options and are confined or restricted. So, this is persecution, affliction, trouble, distress, and anguish. There is a different word, stenoxoria, that refers to external pressure that we feel from what’s going on.

18 What does it matter? Just this, that Christ is proclaimedXCII in every way,XCIII whether out of false motivesXCIV or true;XCV and in that I rejoice.XCVI Yes, and I will continue to rejoice,

Notes on verse 18

XCII “proclaimed” = kataggello. Same as “proclaim” in v17. See note LXXXVI above.
XCIII “way” = tropos. 13x in NT. From the same as trope (turning, change, shifting); from trepo (to turn). This is turning and taking on a new direction or manner. It can refer to way, fashion, style, or character. This is where the word “trope” comes from.
XCIV “false motives” = prophasis. Related to “known” in v13. 7x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + phaino (see note LXVI above). This is outward appearance, pretense, excuse, pretext.
XCV “true” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
XCVI “rejoice” = chairo. Related to “grace” in v2 & “thank” in v3 & “joy” in v4. See note XI above.

Image credit: “Called by the Lord” from Grace Episcopal Cathedral in San Francisco. Photo by Lawrence OP, 2016.

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