To the leader:I according to The DeerII of the Dawn.III A PsalmIV of David.V
Notes on superscription
I “leader” = natsach. Chief musician or singer, overseer, preeminent, enduring, excelling. Properly, this word means to glitter from afar, thus to be eminent. Especially used of Temple services and the music thereof.
II “deer” = ayeleth. 3x in NT. From ayyal (a hart, stag, deer); from the same as ulam (a porch); from the same as ul (mighty, body, belly); (from an unused root meaning to twist – by implication, to be strong; the body as rolled together; powerful, mighty, strength). This is doe or a lofty tree. Also used figuratively to compliment a young wife.
III “dawn” = schachar. Related to schachar (to look diligently for or to look early). This is dawn, early light, or morning.
IV “psalm” = mizmor. From zamar (to make music praising God); perhaps from zamar (to trim, prune) from the sense of stringed instruments being plucked. This is a melody or psalm; instrumental music for a poem set to a tune.
V “David” = David. Related to dod (beloved, love, or uncle as one who is close to you). This name perhaps means loving or beloved one.
1 My God,VI my God, why have you forsakenVII me?
Why are you so farVIII from helpingIX me, from the wordsX of my groaning?XI
Notes on verse 1
VI “God” = el. Used for God and for a god.
VII “forsaken” = azab. To loosen, abandon, leave, relinquish, permit, fail, leave destitute.
VIII “so far” = rachoq. From rachaq (to be or become far or distant, cast, drive, get, go, keep self, put, remove; to widen in any direction; to recede; to remove). So this word is distant in place or in time – used literally and figuratively.
IX “helping” = yeshuah. From yasha (to deliver, rescue, defend, preserve, avenge; properly, to be open, wide or free and thus to be safe). This is the noun of salvation, deliverance, health, welfare. The word for Messiah in Hebrew and also the names Jesus and Joshua share roots with this word.
X “words” = dabar. From dabar (to speak). This is speech, word, topic, thing, message.
XI “groaning” = sheagah. 7x in OT – 4x of lions roaring and 3x of human groaning. From shaag (to roar, rumble, moan, groan). This is roaring, rumbling, moaning.
2 O my God,XII I cryXIII by day,XIV but you do not answer;
and by night,XV but find no rest.XVI
Notes on verse 2
XII “God” = Elohim.
XIII “cry” = qara. This is to call, proclaim, call out, to address someone by name, call forth, invite, give someone a name, preach, proclaim.
XIV “by day” = yomam. From yom (day, today, daily, each, always, continually); (from an unused root meaning to be hot – so the day as the warm hours). This word could mean daytime or by the day.
XV “night” = layil. Night, midnight. This is properly a twist away of the light. Used figuratively for adversity.
XVI “rest” = dumiyyah. 4x in OT. From an unused root meaning to be silent – used figuratively for death. This word is silence, quiet waiting, stillness. Abstractly, it can mean trust.
3 Yet you are holy,XVII
enthronedXVIII on the praisesXIX of Israel.XX
Notes on verse 3
XVII “holy” = qadosh. Related to qodesh (set apart, sacredness, a sacred place or thing). This word is holy, sacred, a holy one, a saint. This is sacred ceremonially or morally.
XVIII “enthroned” = yashab. Literally, to sit, remain, dwell, abide, continue, establish. Literally refers to sitting down, but by extension this can mean to sit as judge, to sit in ambush, to sit in silence. Further implication of sitting is dwelling somewhere, remaining there. Causatively used for settling or for marrying.
XIX “praises” = tehillah. From halal (to be boastful, to praise). Shares a root with Hallelujah (praise the Lord). This word is praise, song of praise, deep place. Used concretely for a hymn.
XX “Israel” = yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, persevere, contend, strive, wrestle; prevail, have power as a prince) + el (God, god). This word is God Strives or one who strives with God. This is a name given to Jacob and his descendants.
4 In you our ancestorsXXI trusted;XXII
they trusted, and you deliveredXXIII them.
5 To you they cried,XXIV and were saved;XXV
in you they trusted, and were not put to shame.XXVI
Notes on verses 4-5
XXI “ancestors” = ab. Literally father. This word can also mean chief or principal. It is used in a literal and figurative sense.
XXII “trusted” = batach. To trust, be confident, be secure or sure, make to hope. Properly, to hide for refuge – figuratively to trust or be confident.
XXIII “delivered” = palat. This word is to escape, calve, carry away safe, deliver. Literally to slip out (from danger to safety) i.e. escape. Used causatively, it means to deliver someone else.
XXIV “cried” = zaaq. To cry, cry out, call, assemble, call together, gather together. Can also be to shriek from anguish or danger. By analogy, it means to announce as a herald or to convene publicly.
XXV “saved” = malat. Properly, to be smooth. By implication, to escape as if by slipperiness. Causatively, to release or rescue. Used specifically for bringing forth young or for emitting sparks.
XXVI “put to shame” = bosh. To be ashamed or put to confusion. Properly, this means to be pale, which implies being ashamed, disappointed, delayed, or confounded.
6 But I am a worm,XXVII and not human;XXVIII
scornedXXIX by others,XXX and despisedXXXI by the people.XXXII
Notes on verse 6
XXVII “worm” = tola. A maggot that is voracious. Specifically refers to the crimson grub (coccus ilicis), which was used to produce a red dye. Thus, this word can also mean stuff dyed scarlet, crimson, or purple or the dye itself. This word is also used figuratively to mean oppressor.
XXVIII “human” = ish. Literally, a man, male, or husband.
XXIX “scorned” = cherpah. From charaph (betroth, to reproach, blaspheme, defy, rail, upbraid; to pull off, by implication to expose (as by stripping); to betroth as if a surrender; fig. to carp at, defame; to spend the winter, blaspheme, defy). This word is reproach, rebuke, shame, disgrace. It can also be used to refer to genitalia.
XXX “others” = adam. Human, humankind, another. Related to adamah (dirt or ground and, of course, the first human, Adam).
XXXI “despised” = bazah. To despise, disdain, scorn, a vile person.
XXXII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, dim, associate – to overshadow by huddling together). This is people as a congregated unit – so tribe, troops, attendants, folk, people, nation. Also used figuratively for a flock.
7 All who see me mockXXXIII at me;
they makeXXXIV mouthsXXXV at me, they shakeXXXVI their heads;XXXVII
Notes on verse 7
XXXIII “mock” = laag. 19x in OT – 8x of fellow Israelites taunting, 7x of enemies or enemy nations taunting, and 4x of God or wisdom laughing. This is to mock, deride, stammer, or laugh. It implies imitating a foreigner and thus speaking unintelligibly.
XXXIV “make” = patar. 4x in OT. To separate, remove, set free, dismiss, let shoot out, slip away. To cleave or burst through. Causatively to emit literally or figuratively; to gape.
XXXV “mouths” = saphah. This is lip as a boundary of the face so it implies language or speech. It is also other margins or edges – border, brim, brink, edge of a vessel, a bank, etc.
XXXVI “shake” = nua. To quiver, wave, waver, tremble, totter, fugitive, to go up and down. This is to waver literally and figuratively. Used in Genesis 4 to pronounce Cain a fugitive and a wanderer.
XXXVII “heads” = rosh. This is head, captain, band, or company. Root may mean to shake – the head as easily shaken. Head used literally or figuratively.
8 “Commit your causeXXXVIII to the Lord;XXXIX let him deliverXL—
let him rescueXLI the one in whom he delights!”XLII
Notes on verse 8
XXXVIII “commit your cause” = galal. 18x in OT. To roll, roll away, commit, remove, run down, seek occasion, trust. Roll used literally or figuratively. Used of rolling stones, having an opportunity, rolling away scorn or disgrace, wallowing in blood, committing to the Lord, and justice rolling down like waters.
XXXIX “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel; the tetragrammaton; the self-existent and eternal one.
XL “deliver” = palat. Same as “delivered” in v4.
XLI “rescue” = natsal. To strip, plunder, deliver oneself or be delivered, snatch away, defend, escape. To snatch away in a good or bad sense.
XLII “delights” = chaphets. Properly, to incline to, to bend, which figuratively implies being pleased with. This is to desire, delight in, or be pleased with.
9 Yet it was you who tookXLIII me from the womb;XLIV
you kept me safeXLV on my mother’sXLVI breast.XLVII
Notes on verse 9
XLIII “took” = giach. 6x in OT: 3x of birth and labor, 2x of water rushing around, and 1x for rushing out in ambush. This is to burst forth, break forth, labor to bring forth, take out. To gush forth as water, to issue. This is God as midwife.
XLIV “womb” = beten. This is belly, body, or womb. Root may mean to be hollow.
XLV “kept me safe” = batach. This is the Hifil form of the word “trusted” in v4.
XLVI “mother’s” = em. Mother as the bond of the family; human and animal; used literally and figuratively.
XLVII “breast” = shad. Perhaps from shud (to swell up; waste). This is breast, female breast, also the teat of an animal. Some scholars believe that this is the root of El Shaddai, a name for God in the Bible often translated “God Almighty.”
10 On you I was castXLVIII from my birth,XLIX
and since my mother boreL me you have been my God.LI
11 Do not be farLII from me,
for troubleLIII is nearLIV
and there is no one to help.LV
Notes on verses 10-11
XLVIII “cast” = shalak. To throw out, down, or away. To fling, cast, cast away, hurl, pluck. Used figuratively and literally.
XLIX “from birth” = rechem. Related to racham (compassion, tender love, tender mercy, pity, womb; the womb as cherishing the fetus, thus mercy and compassion). This is a different word for “womb” than the one in v9.
L “mother bore” = beten + em. Literally “my mother’s womb.”
LI “God” = el.
LII “far” = rachaq. Related to “so far” in v1. To widen in any direction; to recede or remove literally or figuratively.
LIII “trouble” = tsarah. From tsar (adversary, affliction, anguish, distress, a tight place); from tsarar (adversary, to bind, be restricted, narrow, cramped; be in affliction, besiege). This is tightness, figurative for trouble, distress, affliction, anguish, tribulation, an adversary.
LIV “near” = qarob. From qarab (to come near, approach). This word is near in place, kindred, or time.
LV “help” = azar. To surround i.e. protect or aid, ally, support.
12 Many bullsLVI encircle me,
strong bullsLVII of BashanLVIII surround me;
13 they open wideLIX their mouths at me,
like a raveningLX and roaringLXI lion.LXII
Notes on verses 12-13
LVI “bulls” = par. May be related to parar (defeat, break, frustrate, break up; usually figuratively to violate or frustrate). This word is for a young bull, steer, calf, or ox. It depicts a bullock as having wild strength.
LVII “strong bulls” = abbir. 17x in OT – 5x of warriors or mighty ones, 5x of bulls; 4x of horses, 1x of a chief, 1x of strength, and 1x of an angel. This is mighty, valiant, chiefest, mighty one, stouthearted.
LVIII “Bashan” = bashan. means smooth – a region east of the Jordan. Israelites battled and defeated King Og of Bashan when they entered the Promised Land. It was colonized by Manasseh and Golan, a city within Bashan, became a city of refuge. In the Bible, Bashan was known for wild cattle, verdant pastures, oak trees in the forest, and the beauty of its mountains. After the Israelites colonized the Promised Land, they typically call the Bashan region Gilead as well as the rest of the land on the other side of the Jordan River. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bashan)
LIX “open wide” = patsah. 15x in OT – 4x of making vows or speech, 3x of enemies taunting, 3x of rescue, 2x of the earth opening, 1x of people chirping after God’s judgment, and 1x of the angel telling Ezekiel to open his mouth to eat the scroll. This is to part, open, deliver, gape, utter. It is to rend or open, particularly the mouth.
LX “ravening” = taraph. To tear, rend, pluck, catch, feed. To rend or tear or pluck off or pull to pieces. Causatively, to supply with food.
LXI “roaring” = shaag. Related to “groaning” in v1. To roar, groan, moan, rumble.
LXII “lion” = ari. From arah (to gather, pluck). This is a young lion – has the sense of one that pierces.
14 I am poured outLXIII like water,
and all my bonesLXIV are out of joint;LXV
my heartLXVI is like wax;LXVII
it is meltedLXVIII within my breast;LXIX
Notes on verse 14
LXIII “poured out” = shaphak. To pour out, gush out, slip. To spill forth – blood, libation, liquid metal, a solid. To mound up. Used figuratively for expending life, complain, money. Used intensively to sprawl out, slip.
LXIV “bones” = etsem. From atsam (bones; to be vast, mighty, numerous; to bind fast – i.e. close the eyes; intransitively to be, causatively to make powerful or numerous; denominatively from etsem to crunch the bones – break the bones). This is bone, substance, self, body, life, strength.
LXV “out of joint” = parad. To divide, disperse, sever, scatter abroad, stretch. To break through or separate oneself.
LXVI “heart” = leb. From the same as lebab (inner self, mind, will, heart; the heart as the most interior organ; courage – faint or tenderhearted); perhaps related to labab (cake, to get a mind or to encourage; properly to be enclosed as if with fat; by implication to unheart; in a good sense to transport with love; in a bad sense to stultify; also, to make cakes, ravish, be wise). This is the inner self, mind, will, heart. The heart used figuratively for feelings, will, intellect as well as the center of anything. Heart is always used figuratively in the Old and New Testament.
LXVII “wax” = donag. 4x in OT – 3x for melt like wax, 1x for burst open like wax.
LXVIII “melted” = masas. To dissolve, melt, discourage, faint, be loosed, refuse, liquefy. Figuratively, to waste with disease, faint with fatigue, fear, or grief.
LXIX “breast” = meeh. Internal organs, inward parts, belly, bowels, heart, womb. Root may mean to be soft. Figurative for sympathy.
15 my mouthLXX is dried up like a potsherd,LXXI
and my tongue sticks to my jaws;LXXII
you layLXXIII me in the dust of death.
Notes on verse 15
LXX “mouth” = koach. Different word from “mouth” in v13. Root means to be firm. This word is ability, strength, power, substance, wealth. force, fruits, vigor, or small reptile. A force good or bad. Figurative for capacity, means, produce.
LXXI “potsherd” = cheres. 17x in OT – 6x of purity and sacrifice laws, 4x of scraps of pottery, 3x of earthen vessels made by God, 2x of earthenware vessels as a sign, 1x for dryness, and 1x as smooth earthen vessel. This is a piece of pottery or a potsherd.
LXXII “jaws” = malquoach. 8x in OT – 5x of booty, 1x for jaws, 1x for prey. From laqach (to take, accept, get, buy, seize). This is jaws as that which takes in food. Used intransitively, it is spoil and captives as things that are taken.
LXXIII “lay” = shaphath. 5x in OT – 3x for setting a pot on the fire, 1x for lay in the dust of death, 1x for God will ordain peace for us. This is to set on the fire, bring, ordain. To locate. Generally to hang on or figuratively to establish, reduce.
16 For dogs are all aroundLXXIV me;
a company of evildoersLXXV encirclesLXXVI me.
My hands and feet have shriveled;LXXVII
Notes on verse 16
LXXIV “all around” = sabab. Same as “encircle” in v12.
LXXV “evildoers” = ra’a’. Properly, to spoil – literally by breaking to pieces. Figuratively to make or be good for nothing. So, bad physically, socially, or morally. To afflict, be evil, be bad, break down, displease, do harm, do mischief.
LXXVI “encircles” = naqaph. 19x in OT. To strike off, compass about, cut down, destroy. This is to strike with more or less violence – beat, corrode. It implies to knock together, to surround or circulate, to destroy, go round about, enclose.
LXXVII “shriveled” = karah. 17x in OT. Properly to dig. Figuratively to plot. Generally to bore or open. Can also mean make a banquet.
17 I can count all my bones.
They stare and gloatLXXVIII over me;
18 they divideLXXIX my clothesLXXX among themselves,
and for my clothingLXXXI they cast lots.
Notes on verses 17-18
LXXVIII “gloat” = raah. Same as “see” in v7.
LXXIX “divide” = chalaq. This is deal, divide, share, distribute, flatter, give, take away a portion. To be smooth figuratively, hence flatter. Smooth stones were used for lots so this word means apportioning or separating.
LXXX “clothes” = beged. From bagad (to act or deal treacherously, unfaithfully, offend, transgressor, depart; to cover with a garment; fig. to act covertly; by impl. to pillage, deal deceitfully, unfaithfully, offend). This is apparel, treachery, rag, robe. A covering – hence clothing and also treachery.
LXXXI “clothing” = lebush. From labash (to put on, wear, clothe, be clothed, arm, array self; properly, wrap around; by implication to put on a garment or clothe oneself lit. or fig.). This is garment literally or figuratively. By implication or euphemism, it can mean a wife.
19 But you, O Lord,LXXXII do not be far away!LXXXIII
O my help,LXXXIV come quicklyLXXXV to my aid!LXXXVI
Notes on verse 19
LXXXII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v8
LXXXIII “far away” = rachaq. Same as “far” in v11
LXXXIV “my help” = eyaluth. 1x in OT. Related to “deer” in v1. This is my help, power – implies protection and strength.
LXXXV “come quickly” = chush. 20x in OT. This is to hurry; figuratively to be eager with excitement or enjoyment.
LXXXVI “aid” = ezrah. Related to “help” in v11. This is help, helper, assistance, support.
20 Deliver my soulLXXXVII from the sword,LXXXVIII
my lifeLXXXIX from the powerXC of the dog!
21 SaveXCI me from the mouth of the lion!
Notes on verses 20-21a
LXXXVII “soul” = nephesh. This is a breathing creature so it includes animals. Used abstractly for vitality. Has a broad literal and figurative sense – soul, living being, life, self, person, desire, passion, appetite, emotion.
LXXXVIII “sword” = chereb. From charab (to attack, slay, smite). This is sword, axe, dagger, knife, mattock, tool. Refers to any cutting instrument – from the root in the sense of the potential destructive effect.
LXXXIX “life” = yachid. 12x in OT – 7x for an only child, 2x for one’s own life, 2x for lonely or solitary, and 1x for my mother’s favorite. This word is used for Isaac in the binding of Isaac (Gen 22) as well as for Jephthah’s daughter (Jdg 11:34). From yachad (to be united, join, be or become one). This is only, solitary, darling, desolate, sole. As only, it implies either beloved or lonely.
XC “power” = yad. Same as “hands” in v16. Hand is figurative for power, means, ability, and direction.
XCI “save” = yasha. Related to “helping” in v1. The root of that noun.
From the horns of the wild oxenXCII you have rescuedXCIII me.
22 I will tellXCIV of your nameXCV to my brothers and sisters;
in the midst of the congregation I will praiseXCVI you:
Notes on verses 21b-22
XCII “wild oxen” = reem. 9x in OT – 3x to symbolize God protecting Israel, 2x of the mystery or power of God, 1x of Joseph’s warring strength (his tribe), 1x of providence, and 1x of judgment.
XCIII “rescued” = anah. Same as “answer” in v2.
XCIV “tell” = saphar. Same as “count” in v17.
XCV “name” = shem. Name, renown. This is a mark of individuality so it implies honor, authority, or character.
XCVI “praise” = halal. Related to “praises” in v3. To shine, praise, make boast, celebrate, commend, give light. To be clear – originally used of sound by generally of color. So, to shine, make a show. Causatively, to celebrate, commend glory, be worthy of praise, sing praise. Can also mean give in marriage.
23 You who fearXCVII the Lord, praise him!
All you offspringXCVIII of Jacob,XCIX glorifyC him;
stand in aweCI of him, all you offspring of Israel!
Notes on verse 23
XCVII “fear” = yare. From yare (to fear, frighten; morally, to revere). This word is afraid, fearful, morally reverent.
XCVIII “offspring” = zera. From zara (to sow, scatter seed, bear, conceive, yield; figuratively to plant, disseminate, fructify). This word is seed, a sowing, seed-time, child, offspring, posterity.
XCIX “Jacob” = yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, footprint, hind part, horse hoof; one who lies in wait, the rear of the army). This is a son of Isaac and his descendants – heel grabber, supplanter.
C “glorify” = kabad. To be heavy, weighty, or burdensome. To abound with. To be heavy in a bad sense (burdensome, severe, dull) or a good one (numerous, rich, honorable). To make weighty, so glorious or glorify.
CI “stand in awe” = gur. To abide, sojourn, assemble, be afraid, dwell, gather together, inhabit, remain. This is properly to turn aside from the rode for lodging or any other reason; to sojourn as a guest; to shrink in fear as when one is in a strange place; to gather to be hostile as when one is afraid.
24 For he did not despiseCII or abhorCIII
the afflictionCIV of the afflicted;CV
he did not hideCVI his face from me,
but heard when I criedCVII to him.
Notes on verse 24
CII “despise” = bazah. Same as “despised” in v6.
CIII “abhor” = shaqats. 7x in OT – 4x for regarding as detestable unclean foods or things, 2x of making yourself detestable with unclean animals, 1x for God not abhorring the affliction of the afflicted. From sheqets (detestation, detestable thing, filth. Can be used for an idolatrous object). This is to detest, make detestable, abhor; to be filth, loathe, pollute.
CIV “affliction” = enuth. 1x in OT. From anah (to defile, be bowed down, be afflicted, abase self; looking down, browbeating; to depress literally or figuratively). This word is affliction.
CV “afflicted” = ani. Related to “affliction” in v24. From anah. This word is poor, afflicted, humble, lowly, needy, poor. One who is depressed in mind or circumstances.
CVI “hide” = sathar. To hide, conceal, be absent, keep secret. To hide by covering, literally or figuratively.
CVII “cried” = shava. To cry out, to cry for help. Shout. This is properly to cry out for freedom from some danger or difficulty.
25 From you comes my praise in the great congregation;
my vows I will payCVIII before those who fear him.
26 The poorCIX shall eat and be satisfied;
those who seekCX him shall praise the Lord.
May your heartsCXI live forever!
Notes on verses 25-26
CVIII “pay” = shalam. This is the root verb that “shalom” (peace, wholeness, welfare) comes from. This is amends, to be complete or sound, make an end, finish, full, make good. It is to be safe in mind, body, or estate. Figuratively, the sense of being completed. So, it implies being friendly and, by extension, reciprocating, making amends, making good, being at peace. Basically, if you are safe and have everything you need, the assumption is that you would then restore, make good, and have good relationships with those around you.
CIX “poor” = anay. Related to “affliction” in v24. From anah. This is poor, afflicted, humble, meek, lowly. Having a gentle mind or depressed circumstances. Can also mean saintly.
CX “seek” = darash. To resort to, seek, ask, care for, inquire. Properly, to tread or frequent. To follow for pursuit or search. Thus, implying to seek or ask. Used specifically to worship.
CXI “hearts” = lebab. This is inner self, mind, will, heart – heart as the inmost organ, center. Also, courage: being faint or tenderhearted. Heart is always used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments.
27 All the ends of the earth shall rememberCXII
and turnCXIII to the Lord;
and all the familiesCXIV of the nationsCXV
shall worshipCXVI before him.
28 For dominionCXVII belongs to the Lord,
and he rulesCXVIII over the nations.
Notes on verses 27-28
CXII “remember” = zakar. Remember, burn incense, make mention of. Properly, to mark so as to be recognized. Can imply to mention.
CXIII “turn” = shub. To turn back, return. This verb is the root of the word for forgiveness in Hebrew – teshuvah.
CXIV “families” = mishpachah. Root means to spread out – as a family or a member of a household. This is clan, family, kindred, circle of relatives. Can be used for a tribe or people.
CXV “nations” = goy. From ga’ah (to rise up, gloriously, grow up, increase, mount up). This word is nation, people, Gentile. Often used for a foreign nation.
CXVI “worship” = shachah. To bow down, crouch, humble beseech, do reverence, worship. This is to depress or prostrate; to pay homage to a king or to God, do obeisance.
CXVII “dominion” = melukah. From the same as melek (king). This is kingship, royalty. Something rules – so, a realm or kingdom.
CXVIII “rules” = mashal. To rule, have dominion, reign, governor.
29 To him,indeed, shall allCXIX who sleepCXX in the earth bow down;CXXI
before him shall bowCXXII all who go down to the dust,CXXIII
and I shall live for him.
30 Posterity will serve him;
future generations will be toldCXXIV about the Lord,
31 and proclaim his deliverance to a people yet unborn,
saying that he has done it.
Notes on verses 29-31
CXIX [untranslated] = dashen. 3x in OT. From dashen (to be fat, grow fat, accept, anoint, wax fat, to fatten; specifically to anoint; figuratively, to satisfy). This word is fat so figuratively for rich or fertile.
CXX “sleep” = akal. Same as “eat” in v26.
CXXI “bow down” = shachah. Same as “worship” in v27.
CXXII “bow” = kara. This is to bring down low, cast down, couch, feeble, kneeling; to bend the knee. By implication, to sink, prostrate, strike, stoop down. Can be to bow to drink, to bow in supplication or worship, a pregnant woman bowing in childbirth, enemies bowing and falling in battle.
CXXIII The Septuagint translates this verse “All the fat ones of the earth have eaten and worshipped: all that go down to the earth shall fall down before him.” This picks up on the notion a few verses earlier of the poor eating their fill.
CXXIV “told” = saphar. Same as “count” in v17.
Image Credit: Nursing home of Joachim and Anna in the Netherlands: Interior chapel, right wall, stained glass: “Psalm 22”, by visual artist Ted Felen, 1982