Psalm 31

Psalm 31


To the leader.I A PsalmII of David.III

Notes on superscript

I “leader” = natsach. Properly, something that glitters from a distance. So, something that stands out, excels, has status/standing (such as a chief musician or superintendent of Temple services). This can also mean to be permanent or enduring.
II “Psalm” = mizmor. From zamar (making music; used specially of music to worship God; music with singing, singing praise, singing psalms); may be from zamar (to trim or prune). This is a melody or a psalm.
III “David” = david. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”

In you, O Lord,IV I seek refuge;V
    do not let me everVI be put to shame;VII
    in your righteousnessVIII deliverIX me.

Notes on verse 1

IV “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
V “seek refuge” = chasah. This is to take refuge or flee for protection. Figuratively, it means to hope or trust in someone or something.
VI “ever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
VII “be put to shame” = bosh. Properly, this means to be pale, which implies shame, disappointment, or confusion.
VIII “righteousness” = tsedaqah. From the same as tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity). This is righteousness, justice, righteous acts, and moral virtue.
IX “deliver” = palat. This is to escape, slip out, deliver, carry away, or calve.

InclineX your ear to me;
    rescueXI me speedily.
Be a rockXII of refugeXIII for me,
    a strongXIV fortressXV to saveXVI me.

Notes on verse 2

X “incline” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.
XI “rescue” = natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder.
XII “rock” = tsur. Perhaps from tsur (to confine, cramp, or bind in a literal or figurative sense; to besiege, assault, or distress). This is rock, tone, cliff, boulder, rocky. It can also be a refuge, a way to refer to God.
XIII “refuge” = maoz. From uz (to run for refuge, to seek safety, be strong) OR from azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; to be stout literally or figuratively). This is a defense, refuge, safety, fortress, rock, strength, or stronghold. It is somewhere one goes to be safe and protected or something one uses to be safe. Figuratively, it could be a defense or a force.
XIV “strong” = matsud. From matsod (bulwark, siege works, net, snare); from tsud (to hunt, to lie in wait in order to catch an animal; used figuratively for capturing people). This is a castle, fortress, or stronghold. Also, a snare, net, or prey. It can abstractly mean capture.
XV “fortress” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XVI “save” = yasha. To deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free.

You are indeed my rockXVII and my fortress;XVIII
    for your name’sXIX sake leadXX me and guideXXI me,

Notes on verse 3

XVII “rock” = sela. Root may mean being lofty. This is a rock, cliff, crag, mountain. It could be used figuratively for obstinance or to show God as a refuge. It can also more generally mean fortress or stronghold.
XVIII “fortress” = matsud. Same as “strong” in v2. See note XIV above.
XIX “name’s” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
XX “lead” = nachah. This is lead, guide, or bring. It can be used for transporting into exile or coming in as colonists. This is the word used in Psalm 23 “he leads me in the paths of righteousness.”
XXI “guide” = nahal. 10x in OT. This is leading or guiding – specifically to a resting place or somewhere where there is water. So, it can mean to refresh or feed, protect or sustain. The word itself carries a sense of flowing, sparkling water. This is the word used in Psalm 23 “he leads me beside still waters.”

take me out of the netXXII that is hiddenXXIII for me,
    for you are my refuge.
Into your handXXIV I commitXXV my spirit;XXVI

Notes on verses 4-5a

XXII “net” = resheth. From yarash (inheriting or dispossessing; refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them; by implication, to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish). This is a net used to capture animals.
XXIII “is hidden” = taman. This is to hide, bury, keep in reserve. It is hiding something by covering it.
XXIV “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XXV “commit” = paqad. This is to attend to or visit – can be used for a friendly or violent encounter. So, it can be to oversee, care for, avenge, or charge.
XXVI “spirit” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.

    you have redeemedXXVII me, O Lord, faithfulXXVIII God.XXIX

Notes on verse 5b

XXVII “redeemed” = padah. This is to sever, which is to say to ransom. To secure someone’s release (by paying their debt to free them from slavery) and thus redeem, rescue, deliver, preserve. Can also be the redemption price.
XXVIII “faithful” = emet. From aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This is firmness or stability. Figuratively, it is faithfulness, truth, or trustworthiness. This is the same root that “amen” comes from.
XXIX “God” = el.

You hateXXX those who pay regardXXXI to worthlessXXXII idols,XXXIII
    but I trustXXXIV in the Lord.

Notes on verse 6

XXX “hate” = sane. This is an enemy or foe. It is one that is hated with a personal hatred.
XXXI “those who pay regard” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
XXXII “worthless” = shav. Perhaps from the same as sho (ruin, desolation, storm; from a root that means rushing over – hence a storm and hence devastation). This is emptiness, false, worthless, deceit. It can also refer to evil, guile, idolatry, or something being in vain.
XXXIII “idols” = hebel. This is emptiness, vapor, breath. It can refer to something that is fleeting or futile, worthless or a delusion. Something that it passing and so does not satisfy. This is related to the root for the name “Abel.”
XXXIV “trust” = batach. This is to hide for refuge, be secure or sure. Figuratively, it refers to trust, being confident, or hoping.

I will exultXXXV and rejoiceXXXVI in your steadfast love,XXXVII
    because you have seenXXXVIII my affliction;XXXIX

Notes on verse 7a

XXXV “exult” = gil. Properly, this is twirling around because of a strong feeling whether of rejoicing or from fear. This can be rejoice, be glad or joyful, or to cry.
XXXVI “rejoice” = samach. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to brighten up in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXVII “steadfast love” = chesed. From chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here). This is favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed. When done by God to humanity, this is mercy/loving kindness. When done by humanity to God, it is piety.
XXXVIII “seen” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XXXIX “affliction” = oniy. From anah (to be bowed down; humility or being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed; literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance). This is misery, poverty, or affliction.

    you have taken heedXL of myXLI adversities,XLII

Notes on verse 7b

XL “taken heed” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XLI “my” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
XLII “adversities” = tsarah. From tsar (properly, a narrow or constricted place; figuratively, trouble, a pebble, an enemy, anguish, or distress); from tsarar (to bind, restrict, narrow, be cramped, an adversary). This is tightness, distress, affliction, trouble, or adversary.

and have not deliveredXLIII me into the hand of the enemy;
    you have setXLIV my feet in a broad place.XLV

Notes on verse 8

XLIII “delivered” = sagar. This is to shut up, imprison, lock, hand over, or figuratively surrender.
XLIV “set” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
XLV “broad place” = merchab. 6x in OT. From rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is a broad place, a large field, an open space. This is a wide open space, generally in a good sense. Figuratively, it can mean liberty.

Be graciousXLVI to me, O Lord, for I am in distress;XLVII
    my eye wastes awayXLVIII from grief,XLIX
    my soulL and bodyLI also.

Notes on verse 9

XLVI “be gracious” = chanan. This is to beseech, show favor, be gracious. Properly, it is to bend in kindness to someone with less status.
XLVII “distress” = tsarar. Related to “adversities” in v7. See note XLII above.
XLVIII “wastes away” = ashesh. 3x in OT– used only in the psalms for eyes and bones wasting away. This is to shrink or waste away. By analogy, this would be to fail or be consumed.
XLIX “grief” = ka’as. From ka’as (to be angry, trouble, provoke, spite, grieve, have sorrow). This is vexation or anger.
L “soul” = nephesh. Same as “my” in v7. See note XLI above.
LI “body” = beten. Root may mean to be hollow. This is the belly or womb. It can also refer to a body more broadly.

10 For my lifeLII is spentLIII with sorrow,LIV
    and my years with sighing;LV

Notes on verse 10a

LII “life” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
LIII “spent” = kalah. This is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed.
LIV “sorrow” = yagon. 14x in OT. From yagah (to suffer, grieve, afflict). This is grief or sorrow.
LV “sighing” = anachah. 11x in OT. From anach (to sigh, groan, or mourn). This is sighing or groaning.

my strengthLVI failsLVII because of my misery,LVIII
    and my bonesLIX waste away.

Notes on verse 10b

LVI “strength” = koach. Root may mean to be firm. This is power, strength, force. It can be literal or figurative, positive or negative. It can also mean capacity or means – what something produces. Additionally, it could refer to some kind of small reptile.
LVII “fails” = kashal. This is to stumble, fail, be weak or decayed, be overthrown, to totter. It can refer to weak legs or ankles so it is falter, faint, or fall.
LVIII “misery” = avon. Perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.
LIX “bones” = etsem. From atsam (vast, numerous, strong; to close one’s eyes, to make powerful; to break bones). This is self, life, strength, bone, or substance.

11 I am the scornLX of all my adversaries,LXI
    a horrorLXII to my neighbors,LXIII

Notes on verse 11a

LX “scorn” = cherpah. From charaph (to expose and so figuratively to reproach, defame, carp at, defy). This is reproach, rebuke, shame, or disgrace. It can also refer to genitals.
LXI “adversaries” = tsarar. Same as “distress” in v9. See note XLII above.
LXII “horror” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
LXIII “neighbors” = shaken. From shakan (to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently; to abide or continue). This is resident or neighbor. It is related to mishkan, the Hebrew word for “tabernacle.”

an object of dreadLXIV to my acquaintances;LXV
    those who see me in the streetLXVI fleeLXVII from me.

Notes on verse 11b

LXIV “object of dread” = pachad. From pachad (to dread, be afraid, thrill, be in awe; feeling startled from a sudden sound or alarm). This is dread, fear, awe, panic. It can also refer to what someone fears or dreads.
LXV “acquaintances” = yada. Same as “taken heed” in v7. See note XL above.
LXVI “street” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.
LXVII “flee” = nadad. This is to wave back and forth. Figuratively, it is to flee, stray, flutter chase away, shake, or shrink. It can also refer to a fugitive.

12 I have passedLXVIII out of mindLXIX like one who is dead;
    I have become like a brokenLXX vessel.LXXI

Notes on verse 12

LXVIII “passed” = shakach. This is to forget or mislay – it is not knowing because of forgetfulness or inattentiveness.
LXIX “mind” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
LXX “broken” = abad. To wander off, lose self. This implies to perish, destroy, die, vanish, or be broken or corrupt.
LXXI “vessel” = keli. Related to “spent” in v10. From kalah (see note LIII above). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.

13 For I hearLXXII the whisperingLXXIII of many—
    terrorLXXIV all around!LXXV

Notes on verse 13a

LXXII “hear” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
LXXIII “whispering” = dibbah. 9x in OT. From dabab (to glide, flow gently, speak, move slowly). This is whispering, slander, bad report, defaming.
LXXIV “terror” = magor. 8x in OT. From gur (to quarrel, stir, attack). This is fear, panic, or terror.
LXXV “all around” = sabib. From sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.

as they schemeLXXVI together against me,
    as they plotLXXVII to take my life.LXXVIII

Notes on verse 13b

LXXVI “scheme” = yasad. This is to establish, appoint, instruct. It is to set in a literal or figurative sense. Also means to sit down together and so to consult or take counsel.
LXXVII “plot” = zamam. 13x in OT. This is to devise, plot, imagine, intend, scheme, think evil. It is usually used in an evil sense
LXXVIII “life” = nephesh. Same as “my” in v7. See note XLI above.

14 But I trust in you, O Lord;
    I say, “You are my God.”LXXIX
15 My timesLXXX are in your hand;
    deliverLXXXI me from the hand of my enemies and persecutors.LXXXII

Notes on verses 14-15

LXXIX “God” = Elohim.
LXXX “times” = et. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.
LXXXI “deliver” = natsal. Same as “rescue” in v2. See note XI above.
LXXXII “persecutors” = radaph. This is to chase after, pursue, hunt, or persecute. It is running after someone or something, generally with hostile motives.

16 Let your faceLXXXIII shineLXXXIV upon your servant;LXXXV
    save me in your steadfast love.
17 Do not let me be put to shame, O Lord,
    for I callLXXXVI on you;

Notes on verses 16-17a

LXXXIII “face” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LXXXIV “shine” = or. This is to light, shine, set on fire – to be luminous in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXV “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
LXXXVI “call” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.

let the wickedLXXXVII be put to shame;
    let them go dumbfoundedLXXXVIII to Sheol.LXXXIX

Notes on verse 17b

LXXXVII “wicked” = rasha. This is morally wrong so it refers to someone who is actively bad as wicked, criminal, an evil person, offender, condemned, or ungodly.
LXXXVIII “go dumbfounded” = damam. This is to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, or die.
LXXXIX “Sheol” = sheol. Perhaps from sha’al (to ask, request). This is the place where the dead go, the grace, the underworld.

18 Let the lyingXC lips be stilledXCI
    that speak insolentlyXCII against the righteousXCIII
    with prideXCIV and contempt.XCV

Notes on verse 18

XC “lying” = sheqer. This is deception, lie, or disappointment. It can also be something that is vain or wrongfully.
XCI “be stilled” = alam. 9x in OT. This is to bind or tie fast. When applied to the mouth, it means to be silent or speechless. This can be voluntary or involuntary.
XCII “insolently” = athaq. 4x in OT. From atheq (to move, advance, remove or continue; figuratively, to grow old or to copy or transcribe). This is arrogant, insolent, arrogance, impudent, stiff.
XCIII “righteous” = tsaddiq. From the same as tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, just cause, vindication; that which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense; abstractly equity; figuratively prosperity). This is just, innocent, righteous, righteous one, or lawful.
XCIV “pride” = gaavah. 19x in OT. From gaah (to rise up, be exalted, triumph; figuratively, be majestic). This is majesty, excellency, pride, or arrogance. It can also mean ornament.
XCV “contempt” = buz. 12x in OT. From buz (to disrespect, hate, scorn). This is contempt, laughingstock, shame, or hated.

19 O how abundant is your goodnessXCVI
    that you have laid upXCVII for those who fearXCVIII you,
and accomplishedXCIX for those who take refuge in you,
    in the sight of everyone!C

Notes on verse 19

XCVI “goodness” = tub. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is goodness, gladness, something that is good. It can also be beauty, welfare, or joy.
XCVII “laid up” = tsaphan. This is to hide something by covering it. It implies hoarding or keeping something in reserve. It can mean to protect or to lurk.
XCVIII “those who fear” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
XCIX “accomplished” = paal. This is to do, make, work, or accomplish. Generally refers to regularly repeated or systematic action – so, to practice.
C “everyone” = ben + adam. Literally “children of Adam.” Ben is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.. Adam is perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.

20 In the shelterCI of your presenceCII you hideCIII them
    from humanCIV plots;CV

Notes on verse 20a

CI “shelter” = sether. Related to “hide” in v20. From sathar (see note CIII below). This is covering, shelter, protection, hiding place. It can be hidden by a mountain, by clouds, in the womb, in a matter of secrecy, through slander, or of nations.
CII “presence” = paneh. Same as “face” in v16. See note LXXXIII above.
CIII “hide” = sathar. This is hide, conceal, or be absent. It is hiding because something is covered – used in a literal or figurative sense.
CIV “human” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
CV “plots” = rokes. 1x in OT. From rakas (to bind, tie). This is a snare. So, tit may refer to a conspiracy or pride.

you hold them safeCVI under your shelterCVII
    from contentiousCVIII tongues.

Notes on verse 20b

CVI “hold…safe” = tsaphan. Same as “laid up” in v19. See note XCVII above.
CVII “shelter” = sukkah. From sok (lair, thicket, den, or hiding place; a den or pavilion as made of intertwined boughs); from sakak (to interweave, knit). This is a booth, canopy, shelter, tent, or tabernacle. This is also the “sukkah” from the Jewish holiday “Sukkot,” which remembers the wilderness wanderings.
CVIII “contentious” = rib. From rib (properly to toss or grapple; used figuratively to mean wrangling and so for arguments, complaints, or disputes; used in a legal setting for pleading or defending a case). This is strife or dispute – whether a personal one or one in a court of law.

21 BlessedCIX be the Lord,
    for he has wondrously shownCX his steadfast love to me
    when I was beset as a cityCXI under siege.CXII

Notes on verse 21

CIX “blessed” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
CX “wondrously shown” = pala. From pele (wonder, miracle, wonderful, marvelous thing). This is to be extraordinary, to arise, to be great or accomplish.
CXI “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
CXII “under siege” = matsor. Related to “rock” in v2. From tsur (see note XII above). This is besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment. It is something that is hemmed in –a siege or distress or fastness.

22 I had said in my alarm,CXIII
    “I am driven farCXIV from your sight.”
But you heardCXV my supplicationsCXVI
    when I cried out to you for help.CXVII

Notes on verse 22

CXIII “alarm” = chaphaz. 9x in OT. This is hurry or alarm. It is something that begins with a start so it can mean to hurry away or to panic, tremble, fear.
CXIV “driven far” = garaz. 1x in OT. This is cut off.
CXV {untranslated} = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
CXVI “supplications” = tachanun. Related to “be gracious” in v9. 18x in OT. From chanan (see note XLVI above). This is entreaty, prayer, or supplication. It is looking for favor earnestly.
CXVII “cried out…for help” = shava. This is crying or shouting aloud, generally seeking freedom from some kind of trouble.

23 Love the Lord, all you his saints.CXVIII
    The Lord preservesCXIX the faithful,CXX
    but abundantlyCXXI repaysCXXII the one who acts haughtily.CXXIII

Notes on verse 23

CXVIII “saints” = chasid. From chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here). This is faithful, kind, pious, merciful, or gracious. It can also refer to godly or pious people. This is where Chasidic Jews take their name from.
CXIX “preserves” = natsar. This is to watch, guard, protect. It can be positive – preserve or obey. It can be negative as conceal.
CXX “faithful” = aman. Related to “faithful” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CXXI “abundantly” = al + yether. Yether is from yathar (to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel). This is a remainder or excess. It can imply abundant or superiority. Additionally, it can be cord a free-hanging rope.
CXXII “repays” = shalam. This is to be complete or sound – to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate. So, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated. This is the root verb that “shalom” comes from, the Hebrew word for peace.
CXXIII “haughtily” = gaavah. Same as “pride” in v18. See note XCIV above.

24 Be strong,CXXIV and let your heartCXXV take courage,CXXVI
    all you who wait forCXXVII the Lord.

Notes on verse 24

CXXIV “be strong” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.
CXXV “heart” = lebab. Related to “mind” in v12. See note LXIX above.
CXXVI “take courage” = amets. This is to be strong, stout, alert, or bold, It can also mean harden, make firm, be courageous or mighty, fortify, or establish. It can refer to physical alertness or mental courage or steadfastness.
CXXVII “wait for” = yachal. This is to wait, which implies patience, hope, and trust. It can also be pained waiting.

Image credit: “Healing Window” at the Manchester Cathedral in the United Kingdom. By Linda Walton, 2004.

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