Psalm 45:10-17

Psalm 45:10-17
Proper 9A


10 Hear,A O daughter,B considerC and inclineD your ear;E

Notes on verse 10a

A “hear” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
B “daughter” = bat. From ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
C “consider” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
D “incline” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.
E “ear” = ozen. This is ear, hearing, audience, show. Properly, it is broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape.

    forgetF your peopleG and your father’sH house,I

Notes on verse 10b

F “forget” = shakach. This is to forget because of not remembering something or not paying attention to it. It can also mean to mislay.
G “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
H “father’s” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
I “house” = bayit. Related to “daughter” in v10. Probably from banah (see note B above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

11     and the kingJ will desireK your beauty.L
Since he is your lord,M bowN to him;

Notes on verse 11

J “king” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
K “desire” = avah. This is to desire, wish for, crave, lust after, to incline.
L “beauty” = yophi. 19x in OT. From yaphah (to be beautiful, decorate; root means being bright, which implies being beautiful). This is beauty.
M “lord” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
N “bow” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.

12     Daughter TyreO will seekP your favorQ with gifts,R

Notes on verse 12a

O “Tyre” = Tsor. “From Phoenician “𐤑𐤓‎ (ṣr /Ṣur/, “rock”)”” OR from the same as tsor (flint, stone, knife, edge); from the same as tsar (pebble, flint) or tsur (to confine, cramp, or bind in a literal or figurative sense; to besiege, assault, or distress). This is Tyre, the Phoenician city. Its name may mean “rock.” See
P “seek” = chalah. Properly, this is to be worn; hence, being weak, sick, or afflicted. It can also mean to grieve or, positively, to flatter or entreat.
Q “favor” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
R “gifts” = minchah. This is a gift or an offering, particularly a sacrificial one that is generally bloodless and given spontaneously (voluntarily).

the richestS of the people 13     with allT kinds of wealth.U

Notes on verses 12b-13a

S “richest” = ashir. From ashar (to be rich, gain, accumulate). This is rich in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be noble or a rich person.
T “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
U “wealth” = kebuddah. 3x in OT. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is abundance, weightiness, wealth, valuables, stately, or magnificence.

The princessV is decked inW her chamber with goldX-wovenY robes;Z

Notes on verse 13b

V “princess” = bat + melek. Literally, “royal daughter.” Bat is the same as “daughter” in v10. See note B above. Melek is the same as “king” in v11. See note J above.
W “in” = penimah. Related to “favor” in v12. 13x in OT. From panah (see note Q above). This is within, interior, or indoors.
X “gold” = zahab. Root may mean to shimmer. This is gold or something that has the color of gold like oil. It can also refer to a clear sky – to good weather.
Y “woven” = mishbetsah. 9x in OT– 8x of items for Temple worship. From shabats (to weave in a checkered pattern, braided, embroidered, setting gems in gold, filigree). This is filigree, interwove, brocade, gems set in gold.
Z “robes” = lebush. From labash (to wrap around, which implies clothing oneself or someone else; wrapping around in a literal or figurative way). This is clothing literally or figuratively. It can be used as a euphemism for a wife.

14     in many-colored robesAA she is ledBB to the king;
    behindCC her the virgins,DD her companions,EE follow.FF

Notes on verse 14

AA “many-colored robes” = riqmah. 12x in OT. From raqam (to embroider, weave, vary color, fabricate). This is embroidered work or cloth, multi-colored, multi-colored stones.
BB “led” = yabal. 18x in OT. This is to lead, bring, carry, conduct. Properly, it means to flow. It can mean to bring or lead with fanfare.
CC “behind” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
DD “virgins” = betulah. This is virgin, maiden, or bride. Can also be used figuratively for a place.
EE “companions” = reah. 2x in OT– 1x in Judges 11 of Jephtah’s daughter’s companions & 1x in Psalm 45 of the bride’s companions. From rea (associate, companion, friend, neighbor, or other; close family or a lover); from raah (perhaps association with). This is a female companion or attendant.
FF “follow” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.

15 With joyGG and gladnessHH they are led along
    as they enterII the palaceJJ of the king.

Notes on verse 15

GG “joy” = simchah. From samach (to rejoice, be glad; properly, to brighten up; also used figuratively). This is joy, rejoicing, pleasure, or glee.
HH “gladness” = gil. 9x in OT. From gil (properly, twirling around because of a strong feeling – whether of rejoicing or from fear; to rejoice, be glad or joyful, to cry). This is circle, rejoicing, or age.
II “enter” = bo. Same as “follow” in v14. See note FF above.
JJ “palace” = hekal. Perhaps from yakol (to be able, endure, overcome, prevail). This is a large building with public access such as a palace or temple.

16 In the place ofKK ancestorsLL you, O king, shall haveMM sons;NN
    you will makeOO them princesPP in all the earth.QQ

Notes on verse 16

KK “in the place of” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
LL “ancestors” = ab. Same as “father’s” in v10. See note H above.
MM “have” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
NN “sons” = ben. Related to “daughter” and “house” in v10. See note B above.
OO “make” = shith. This is to place, set, bring, appoint, consider, bring, array or look.
PP “princes” = sar. This is chief, leader, ruler, lord, official, governor, prince, military leader. It refers to someone at the top of a rank or class.
QQ “earth” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

17 I will cause your nameRR to be celebratedSS in all generations;TT

Notes on verse 17a

RR “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
SS “celebrated” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
TT “generations” = dor + dor. Literally, “generation and generations.” From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.

    thereforeUU the peoples will praiseVV you foreverWW and ever.XX

Notes on verse 17b

UU “therefore” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
VV “praise” = yadah. From yad (hand). This is to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise. So, it is to praise, give thanks, or make a confession.
WW “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
XX “ever” = ad. From adah (to advance or continue; to take away or remove; adorning oneself with ornaments). This is old, perpetuity, eternity. It is a duration going back or forward.

Image credit: “Fulfillment” by Gustav Klimt, between 1910 and 1911.

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