Psalm 45:6-10, 12-15
A Women’s Lectionary 11
6 Your throne,A O God,B endures foreverC and ever.D
A “throne” = kisse. From the same as kese (full moon); perhaps from kasah (to cover, conceal, overwhelm; to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret). This is throne – a seat that is covered or has a canopy. Thus, it is a seat that conveys authority.
B “God” = Elohim.
C “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
D “ever” = ad. From adah (to advance or continue; to take away or remove; adorning oneself with ornaments). This is old, perpetuity, eternity. It is a duration going back or forward.
Your royalE scepter is a scepterF of equity;G
E “royal” = malkut. From melek (king, royal). This is royalty, kingdom, realm, empire – the power the sovereign has.
F “scepter” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.
G “equity” = mishor. From yashar (to be straight, right, even, smooth, or agreeable; figuratively, to make something pleasant or prosperous) This is a level place like a plain. It can also be the proper name of a level place. Figuratively, it can refer to straightness in the sense of justice, equity, fairness, righteousness, or uprightness. It can also refer to a concord.
7 you loveH righteousnessI and hateJ wickedness.K
H “love” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
I “righteousness” = tsedeq. This is rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity.
J “hate” = sane. This is to hate, an enemy. It is a personal hatred and not an abstract one.
K “wickedness” = resha. From the same as rasha (to be wicked, guilty, make trouble, do wrong; can also be condemn, guilty, inflict punishment; this verb implies disturbing or violating). This is wrong, particularly moral wrong. It can be wickedness, evil, wicked deeds, or something that is ill-gotten.
ThereforeL God, your God, has anointedM you
with the oilN of gladnessO beyond your companions;P
L “therefore” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
M “anointed” = mashach. This is smear, paint, spread, or paint. It can also be to rub with oil or, otherwise stated, to anoint. This implies a consecration. This root verb is where the word “messiah” comes from.
N “oil” = shemen. From shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat). This is fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume. Used figuratively for fertile, lavish, rich.
O “gladness” = sason. From sus (to rejoice, be glad; properly, to be bright or cheerful). This is rejoicing, cheerfulness, and welcome.
P “companions” = chaber. 12x in OT. From chabar (to unite, ally, attach, touch; to join in a literal or figurative sense; also, specially, using magic knots or spells to fascinate or connect). This is something that is united or knit together such as an associate or a companion.
8 your robesQ are allR fragrant with myrrhS and aloesT and cassia.U
Q “robes” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.
R “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
S “myrrh” = mor. 12x in OT. From marar (to be bitter, embittered, weep, troubled). This is myrrh as liquid and bitter.
T “aloes” = ahalim. 4x in OT. This is wood or sticks of aloe.
U “cassia” = qetsiah. 1x in OT. From qatsa (to scrape, strip off, separate partially). This is cassia a bark with cinnamon-like qualities.
From ivoryV palacesW stringed instrumentsX make you glad;Y
9 daughtersZ of kingsAA are among your ladies of honor;BB
V “ivory” = shen. From shanan (to sharpen, point, pierce; figuratively to teach). This is a tooth, ivory, something sharp, or, figuratively, a cliff.
W “palaces” = hekal. Perhaps from yakol (to be able, endure, overcome, prevail). This is a large building with public access such as a palace or temple.
X “stringed instruments” = men. 2x in OT – both in Psalms. Root may mean to apportion. This is an instrument, particularly one with strings like a harp.
Y “make…glad” = samach. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to brighten up in a literal or figurative sense.
Z “daughters” = bat. From ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
AA “kings” = melek. Related to “royal” in v6. See note E above.
BB “ladies of honor” = yaqar. From yaqar (to be precious, costly, rare, valued; properly, to be heavy; figuratively, valuable or inhibit). This is precious, splendid, noble, weighty, or rare. It is valuable in a subjective or objective sense.
at your right handCC standsDD the queenEE in goldFF of Ophir.GG
CC “right hand” = yamin. May be from yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm). This can mean right hand, right side, or south. Since most people are right-handed, the metaphorical usage of this word presumes that the right hand is stronger and more agile. Thus, it is the instrument of power and action.
DD “stands” = natsab. This is to station, appoint, establish, take a stand.
EE “queen” = shegal. 2x in OT. From shagel (to copulate with, violate). This is a queen or consort that cohabitates.
FF “gold” = kethem. 9x in OT. Perhaps from katham (to carve, mark, stain). This is pure r fine gold. It can also be something carved, so gold ore.
GG “Ophir” = Ophir. 13x in OT. This is Ophir, a son of Joktan, his lineage, and a place where there is gold.
10 Hear,HH O daughter, considerII and inclineJJ your ear;KK
HH “hear” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
II “consider” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
JJ “incline” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.
KK “ear” = ozen. This is ear, hearing, audience, show. Properly, it is broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape.
forgetLL your peopleMM and your father’sNN house,OO
LL “forget” = shakach. This is to forget because of not remembering something or not paying attention to it. It can also mean to mislay.
MM “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
NN “father’s” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
OO “house” = bayit. Related to “daughters” in v9. Probably from banah (see note Z above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
12 the peoplePP of TyreQQ will seekRR your favorSS with gifts,TT
PP “people” = bat. Same as “daughters” in v9. See note Z above.
QQ “Tyre” = Tsor. “From Phoenician “𐤑𐤓 (ṣr /Ṣur/, “rock”)”” OR from the same as tsor (flint, stone, knife, edge); from the same as tsar (pebble, flint) or tsur (to confine, cramp, or bind in a literal or figurative sense; to besiege, assault, or distress). This is Tyre, the Phoenician city. Its name may mean “rock.” See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Tyre
RR “seek” = chalah. Properly, this is to be worn; hence, being weak, sick, or afflicted. It can also mean to grieve or, positively, to flatter or entreat.
SS “favor” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
TT “gifts” = minchah. This is a gift or an offering, particularly a sacrificial one that is generally bloodless and given spontaneously (voluntarily).
the richestUU of the people 13 with all kinds of wealth.VV
The princessWW is decked in her chamber with goldXX-wovenYY robes;ZZ
UU “richest” = ashir. From ashar (to be rich, gain, accumulate). This is rich in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be noble or a rich person.
VV “wealth” = kebuddah. 3x in OT. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is abundance, weightiness, wealth, valuables, stately, or magnificence.
WW “princess” = bat + melek. Literally, “the royal daughter.” Bat is the same as “daughters” in v9. See note Z above. Melek is the same as “kings” in v9. See note AA above.
XX “gold” = zahab. Root may mean to shimmer. This is gold or something that has the color of gold like oil. It can also refer to a clear sky – to good weather.
YY “woven” = mishbetsah. 9x in OT– 8x of items for Temple worship. From shabats (to weave in a checkered pattern, braided, embroidered, setting gems in gold, filigree). This is filigree, interwove, brocade, gems set in gold.
ZZ “robes” = lebush. From labash (to wrap around, which implies clothing oneself or someone else; wrapping around in a literal or figurative way). This is clothing literally or figuratively. It can be used as a euphemism for a wife.
14 in many-colored robesAAA she is ledBBB to the king;
behind her the virgins,CCC her companions,DDD follow.EEE
15 With joyFFF and gladnessGGG they are led along
as they enterHHH the palace of the king.
AAA “many-colored robes” = riqmah. 12x in OT. From raqam (to embroider, weave, vary color, fabricate). This is embroidered work or cloth, multi-colored, multi-colored stones.
BBB “led” = yabal. 18x in OT. This is to lead, bring, carry, conduct. Properly, it means to flow. It can mean to bring or lead with fanfare.
CCC “virgins” = betulah. This is virgin, maiden, or bride. Can also be used figuratively for a place.
DDD “companions” = reah. 2x in OT– 1x in Judges 11 of Jephtah’s daughter’s companions & 1x in Psalm 45 of the bride’s companions. From rea (associate, companion, friend, neighbor, or other; close family or a lover); from raah (perhaps association with). This is a female companion or attendant.
EEE “follow” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
FFF “joy” = simchah. Related to “make…glad” in v8. From samach (see note Y above). This is joy, rejoicing, pleasure, or glee.
GGG “gladness” = gil. 9x in OT. From gil (properly, twirling around because of a strong feeling – whether of rejoicing or from fear; to rejoice, be glad or joyful, to cry). This is circle, rejoicing, or age.
HHH “enter” = bo. Same as “follow” in v14. See note EEE above.
Image credit: “Incense in India” by ID 4174332 on pixabay.com, 2017.