Revelation 21:10, 22-22:5

Revelation 21:10, 22-22:5
Eastertide C26


21:10 And in the spiritA he carried me awayB to a great,C highD mountainE

Notes on verse 21:10a

A “spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
B “carried…away” = apophero. 6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry off or away. It can mean carry off violently.
C “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
D “high” = hupselos. 12x in NT– in Matthew’s and Luke’s Temptation story as well as Matthew and Mark’s Transfiguration accounts. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is high, lofty, or exalted. It can be lofty in elevation or in character.
E “mountain” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.

and showedF me the holyG cityH JerusalemI

Notes on verse 21:10b

F “showed” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.
G “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
H “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
I “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

coming downJ out of heavenK from God.L

Notes on verse 21:10c

J “coming down” = katabaino. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (to walk, go). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
K “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “mountain” in v21:10. May be related to oros (see note E above) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
L “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

22 I sawM no templeN in the city, for its temple isO

Notes on verse 21:22a

M “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
N “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
O “is” = eimi. This is to be or exist.

the LordP God the AlmightyQ and the Lamb.R 

Notes on verse 21:22b

P “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
Q “Almighty” = Pantokrator. 10x in NT– 9x in Revelation. From pas (all, every, each) + krateo (being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule; to seize, grasp hold of, control; to arrest); {from kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised)}. This is almighty or omnipotent. It is the one who rules everything. It is always used of God.
R “Lamb” = Arnion. Related to “mountain” and “heaven” in v21:10. From aren (sheep, male lamb); perhaps from the same as arren (male); perhaps from airo (see note E above). This is a lamb. In earlier usage this was a diminutive (i.e. a little lamb). At this point, it may have meant young lamb. Figuratively, it was someone pure or innocent.

23 And the city hasS no needT of sunU or moonV to shineW on it,

Notes on verse 21:23a

S “has” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
T “need” = chreia. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.
U “sun” = helios. This is sun, which would imply light in general or the east.
V “moon” = selene. 9x in NT. From selas (bright flame). This is moon as bright.
W “shine” = phaino. Perhaps related to phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); {from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light)}. This is to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear. This is show in a literal or figurative sense.

for the gloryX of God is its light,Y and its lampZ is the Lamb. 

Notes on verse 21:23b

X “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
Y “is…light” = photizo. Related to “shine” in v21:23. 11x in NT. From phos (see note W above). This is to shine or give light, illumine or reveal. Properly, it is to enlighten in a literal or figurative sense. It can mean to brighten up or to make one see.
Z “lamp” = luchnos. 14x in NT. Perhaps from the base of leukos (bright, white, brilliant); from luke (light). This is a lamp that is portable and fueled by oil. It can mean light in a literal or figurative sense.

24 The nationsAA will walkBB by its light,CC

Notes on verse 21:24a

AA “nations” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
BB “walk” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
CC “light” = phos. Related to “shine” and “is…light” in v21:23. See note W above.

and the kingsDD of the earthEE will bringFF their glory into it.GG 

Notes on verse 21:24b

DD “kings” = basileus. Related to “coming down” in v21:10.  Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (see note J above). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
EE “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
FF “bring” = phero. Related to “carried…away” in v21:10. See note B above.
GG Some manuscripts add “and honor of their nations into it” = kai + time + ho + ethnos + autos + eis + autos. Time is from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value). This has to do with worth or something’s perceived value. Literally, it means price, but figuratively, it means the honor or value one sees in someone or something else. It can be esteem or dignity. It can also mean precious or valuables. Ethnos is the same as “nations” in v21:24. See note AA above.

25 Its gatesHH will never be shutII by dayJJ—and there will be no night there. 26 People will bring into it the glory and the honorKK of the nations. 

Notes on verses 21:25-26

HH “gates” = pulon. 18x in NT. From pule (gate, large entrance to a city or a fortress; often used for an exit way; often figurative for authority and power). This is a porch, gateway, or vestibule. It is a passageway from the street through the house to the courtyard.
II “be shut” = kleio. 16x in NT. This is to close, shut, or lock in a literal of figurative sense. Figuratively used for shutting out of the kingdom of heaven or the wedding banquet, the heavens shutting as in there is no rain, and also for heartlessness.
JJ “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
KK “honor” = time. Same as {untranslated} in v21:24. See note GG above.

27 But nothingLL uncleanMM will enterNN it, nor anyone who practicesOO abominationPP

Notes on verse 21:27a

LL {untranslated} = pas. Related to “Almighty” in v21:22. See note Q above.
MM “unclean” = koinos. 14x in NT. From sun (with, together with). This is common, shared – something for ordinary or everyday use. It can also denote unclean, unholy, or profane – unholy rather than something reserved for a sacred purpose.
NN “enter” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
OO “practices” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
PP “abomination” = bdelugma. 6x in NT. From bdelussomai (properly, to stink; to be foul and thus detestable like a bad odor; to be abhorrent or disgusted); from bdeo (to stink). This is something accursed or abominable. It is something that stinks and so is abhorrent. Specially, it can refer to an abomination or idolatry.

or falsehood,QQ but only those who are writtenRR in the Lamb’s bookSS of life.TT

Notes on verse 21:27b

QQ “falsehood” = pseudos. 10x in NT. From pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify). This is a lie or false religion.
RR “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
SS “book” = biblion. From biblos (the inside bark of papyrus so it could refer to anything that was written on – a scroll, book, record, roll; could also have an association with the sacred); perhaps from bublos (papyrus); from Phoenician Byblos (a Phoenician city that exported papyrus for writing); {from gb (well, origin) + I (God)}; from Proto-Canaanite g-b-l (Gubla – maybe meaning to border). This is paper, book, scroll, certificate. It is where the word “Bible” comes from.
TT “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

22:1 Then the angel showed me the riverUU of the waterVV of life, brightWW as crystal,XX

Notes on verse 22:1a

UU “river” = potamos. 17x in NT. From pino (to drink). This is a river, brook, or water. It can also be a riverbed flowing with heavy rain or melted snow (like an arroyo).
VV “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
WW “bright” = lampros. 9x in NT. From the same as lampas (a torch or lantern that was hand held, perhaps made of clay with a flax wick and oil); from lampo (to give light literally or figuratively). This is literally bright or shining. By analogy, it can be splendid, gorgeous, fine (of quality), or gleaming white.
XX “crystal” = krustallos. 2x in NT. From kruos (frost). This is literally ice, which is figuratively used to refer to crystal. It is where the word “crystal” comes from.

flowingYY from the throneZZ of God and of the Lamb through the middleAAA of the streetBBB of the city.

Notes on verses 22:1b-2a

YY “flowing” = ekporeuomai. From ek (from, from out of) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. This is to go forth, depart from, be spoken, flow out, project. This word emphasizes the result a process or passage – how it impacts the person or thing.
ZZ “throne” = thronos. Probably from thanos (bench); from thrao (to sit). This is throne or seat – the place where the king sits. So, it is used figuratively to mean power, dominion, or a potentate. This is where the word “throne” comes from.
AAA “middle” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
BBB “street” = plateia. 9x in NT. From platus (wide, spread flat, broad); perhaps from plasso (to form, mold; to create like a potter shapes clay). This is a street or some kind of broad place like a public square.

On either sideCCC of the river is the treeDDD of lifeEEE with its twelveFFF kinds of fruit,GGG

Notes on verse 22:2b

CCC “on either side” = enteuthen + kai + ekeithen. Literally “on this side and on that side.”
DDD “tree” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.
EEE {untranslated} = poieo. Same as “practices” in v21:27. See note OO above.
FFF “twelve” = dodeka. From duo (two, both) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.
GGG “fruit” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.

producingHHH its fruit eachIII month; and the leavesJJJ of the tree are for the healingKKK of the nations. 

Notes on verse 22:2c

HHH “producing” = apodidomi. From apo (from, away from) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is to give back, return, give away. It is to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell.
III “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
JJJ “leaves” = phullon. 6x in NT. Perhaps from the same as phule (clan, tribe, lineage); {from phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow). This is a sprout or a leaf.
KKK “healing” = therapeia. 3x in NT. From therapeuo (to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure; can be used for doctors and those who serve God; to worship); from therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is attention, healing, treatment, care, household. It is where the word “therapy” comes from.

Nothing accursedLLL will be foundMMM there any more. But the throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and his servantsNNN will worshipOOO him; 

Notes on verse 22:3

LLL “accursed” = katanathema. 1x in NT. From katathema (a curse); from katatithemi (to deposit, place down); {from kata (down, against, according to, throughout) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)} OR from kata (down, against, according to, throughout) + anathema (solemn, anathema, or accursed; a thing that is laid up, such as a votive offering or something one pledges to God; a divine curse or a divine ban, something or someone that is cast out); {from anatithemi (to set up or forth, communicate, submit, declare); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + tithemi (see above)}}. This is curse or something cursed. An oath that dedicates something for destruction.
MMM “be found” = eimi. Same as “is” in v21:22. See note O above.
NNN “servants” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
OOO “worship” = latreuo. From latris (a hired servant; someone who is qualified to perform a technical task). Properly, this is giving good, technical service because qualified or equipped to do so. It can be serve, minister, worship, or give homage.

they will see his face,PPP and his nameQQQ will be on their foreheads.RRR 

Notes on verse 22:4

PPP “face” = prosopon. Related to “saw” in v21:22. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note M above)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
QQQ “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
RRR “foreheads” = metopon. Related to “saw” in v21:22 & “face” in v22:4. 8x in NT. From meta (with, among, behind, beyond) + ops (see note PPP above). This is forehead or front.

And there will be no more night; they need no light of lamp orSSS sun, for the Lord God will be their light, and they will reignTTT forever and ever.UUU

Notes on verse 22:5

SSS {untranslated} = phos. Same as “light” in v21:24. See note CC above.
TTT “reign” = basileuo. Related to “coming down” in v21:10 & “kings” in v21:24. From basileus (see note DD above). This is to reign as king, to rule in a literal or figurative sense.
UUU “forever and ever” = eis + ho + aion + ho + aion. Literally, “to the ages of the ages.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.

Image credit: “River of Life” by Sean Palfrey, 2015.

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