Romans 15:7-13

Romans 15:7-13
All Saints’ Day – A Women’s Lectionary


WelcomeA one another, therefore, just as ChristB has welcomed you, for the gloryC of God.D 

Notes on verse 7

A “welcome” = proslambano. 12x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take aside, accept, receive, or welcome. It can be to take in a friendly or hospitable sense or to eat (i.e. take food).
B “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
C “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
D “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

For I tellE you that Christ has becomeF a servantG of the circumcisedH

Notes on verse 8a

E “tell” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
F “become” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
G “servant” = diakonos. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is a servant, minister, waiter, or attendant. It is used for a person who performs a service, including religious service. This is the root of the word “deacon.”
H “circumcised” = peritome. From peritemno (to circumcise; literally cut around); {from peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + same as tomos or tomoteros (sharp or keener); from temno (to cut as with a single slice)}. This is properly, cut around, referring to the way that foreskin is removed and so this is to circumcise. It can be used or the rite or the people who are circumcised – in a literal or figurative sense.

on behalf of the truthI of God in order that he might confirmJ the promisesK given to the ancestorsL 

Notes on verse 8b

I “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
J “confirm” = bebaioo. 8x in NT. From bebaios (properly, ground that is solid enough to walk over; firm, unshakable; figuratively, guaranteed, valid, sure, steadfast, enduring; literally and figuratively “solid footing”); from the same as basis (a step; hence, a foot, pace, or base); from baino (to walk or go). This is secure, guantee, reliable, firm, dependable. It is something that you can put your trust in.
K “promises” = epaggelia. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is a summons, promise, or message. It is a formal promise that is officially sanctioned. In the New Testament, this usually refers to a promise made in the Old Testament.
L “ancestors” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.

and that the gentilesM might glorifyN God for his mercy.O

Notes on verse 9a

M “gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
N “glorify” = doxazo. Related to “glory” in v7. From doxa (see note C above). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
O “mercy” = eleos. This is mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion, whether from humans or from God. This is mercy, generally understood in action by word or deed. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is related to this word.

As it is written,P

“Therefore I will confessQ you among the gentiles
    and sing praisesR to your name”;S

Notes on verse 9b

P “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
Q “confess” = exomologeo. Related to “tell” in v8. 10x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + homologeo (to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate; to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse); {from homologos (of one mind); {from homos (the same) + lego (see note E above)}}. This is agree, consent, or acknowledge. It can also be confess, give thanks, or praise. It includes an open, public, unabashed declaration.
R “sing praises” = psallo. 5x in NT. From psao (to rub). This is to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp. Always used for songs of praise to God in the New Testament. It is where “psalm” comes from.
S “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

10 and again he says,

“Rejoice,T O gentiles, with his people”;U

11 and again,

“PraiseV the Lord,W all you gentiles,
    and let all the peoples praiseX him”;

Notes on verses 10-11

T “rejoice” = euphraino. 14x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done) + phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); {perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb)}. This is to be glad, revel, feast. It is having a positive outlook, rejoicing.
U “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
V “praise” = aineo. 8x in NT. From ainos (praise, saying, story, proverb). This is to praise.
W “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
X “praise” = epaineo. Related to “praise” in v11. 6x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aineo (see note V above). This is to praise or laud. It is to give someone the credit that they are due.

12 and again IsaiahY says,

“The rootZ of JesseAA shall come,BB

Notes on verse 12a

Y “Isaiah” = Esaias. From Hebrew Yeshayahu (Isaiah, “salvation of the Lord”); {from yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe; to free someone) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}}. This is Isaiah, meaning “salvation of the Lord.”
Z “root” = rhiza. 17x in NT. This is a root literally or figuratively so it would be the root of what comes from it – shoot, source, descendant. This is where the word “rhizome” comes from.
AA “Jesse” = Iessai. 5x in NT. From Hebrew yishay (Jesse); perhaps from the same as yesh (being, existence, substance). This is Jesse, perhaps meaning “God exists.” See
BB “come” = eimi. This is to be, exist.

    the one who risesCC to ruleDD the gentiles;
in him the gentiles shall hope.”EE

Notes on verse 12b

CC “rises” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
DD “rule” = archo. 2x in NT. This is to rule, begin, have political position or power.
EE “hope” = elpizo. From elpis (expectation, hope, trust, confidence, faith; expectation whether abstract or concrete); from elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively); from elpomai (to anticipate, expect). This is to expect, trust, hope for, or to wait in an active way.

13 May the God of hopeFF fillGG you with all joyHH and peaceII in believing,JJ

Notes on verse 13a

FF “hope” = elpis. Related to “hope” in v12. See note EE above.
GG “fill” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
HH “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
II “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
JJ “believing” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

so that you may aboundKK in hope by the powerLL of the HolyMM Spirit.NN

Notes on verse 13b

KK “abound” = perisseuo. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is more than what is ordinary or necessary. It is abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond. It is super-abounding in number or quality.
LL “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
MM “Holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
NN “Spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

Image credit: “Divine New Year to all Flickr Friends of the worlds” by iezalel williams, 2018.

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