Ruth 4:1-22

Ruth 4:1-22
Narrative Lectionary


No sooner had BoazI gone upII to the gateIII and sat downIV there

Notes on verse 1a

I “Boaz” = Boaz. Perhaps from azaz (to be strong in a literal or figurative sense, overcome, be impudent). This is Boaz, a personal name as well as what one of the pillars at the Temple was called. It means “quickness” or “in strength” or “by strength” or “in him…is strength.”  See
II “gone up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
III “gate” = shaar. May be related to sha’ar (to calculate or reckon; may come from a root that means to open up or split). This is a gate, door, or other opening like a port.
IV “sat down” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.

thanV the next-of-kinVI of whom Boaz had spokenVII came passing by.VIII

Notes on verse 1b

V {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
VI “next-of-kin” = gaal. This is to redeem someone or something according to kinship laws. So, it could be acting on a relative’s behalf to buy back their property, to marry one’s brother’s widow, etc. This could be more briefly translated as to redeem, acts as kinsman, or purchase. As a noun, it could be deliverer or avenger.
VII “spoken” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
VIII “passing by” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.

So Boaz said, “Come over;IX sit down here.”X And he went overXI and sat down. 

Notes on verse 1c

IX “come over” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
X {untranslated} = peloni + almoni. Note: in all three places these words appear, they appear together. Peloni is 3x in OT. From palah (to distinguish in a literal or figurative sense; to sever, set apart, or show self to be marvelous). This is such or a certain person. Almoni is 3x in NT. From alam (to hide, conceal, a dissembler; to conceal in a literal or figurative sense). This is such or someone – a way of referring to someone without specifying their identity or where they are.
XI “went over” = sur. Same as “come over” in v1. See note IX above.

Then Boaz tookXII tenXIII menXIV of the eldersXV of the townXVI and said, “Sit down here,” so they sat down. 

Notes on verse 2

XII “took” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XIII “ten” = eser. Perhaps from asar (to tithe, render a tenth of). This is ten or -teen. While 7 is symbolically the number of perfection, ten is also symbolically a number of perfection (but to a lesser degree than 7 is).
XIV “men” = enosh. From anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is human, humankind, another. It is mortal.
XV “elders” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.
XVI “town” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.

He then said to the next-of-kin, “Naomi,XVII who has come backXVIII from the countryXIX of Moab,XX

Notes on verse 3a

XVII “Naomi” = Noomi. From no’am (pleasantness, favor, delight, suitableness, grace); from naem (to be pleasant, beautiful, sweet, or agreeable in a literal or figurative sense). This is Naomi or Noomi, whose name means “pleasant” or “my delight” or “sweet.” See
XVIII “come back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
XIX “country” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
XX “Moab” = Moab. May be from ab (father, ancestor, grandfather; father in a literal or figurative sense). This is Moab or Moabite. Name could mean “from her father” in reference to the incestuous relationship between Lot and his daughters. The name could also mean, more pleasantly, “seed of a father” or “desirable land.” See

is sellingXXI the parcelXXII of landXXIII that belonged to our kinsmanXXIV Elimelech.XXV 

Notes on verse 3b

XXI “selling” = makar. This is to sell – could be commerce/trade, a daughter to be married, someone into slavery. Figuratively, it can mean to surrender.
XXII “parcel” = chelqah. From cheleq (portion, catch, division, reward, share, smooth tongue, flattery, associate); from chalaq (to be smooth in a figurative sense; can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute; figuratively, it can also mean to flatter). This is smoothness. Figuratively it can mean a tract of land or other allotment or flattery.
XXIII “land” = sadeh. Same as “country” in v3. See note XIX above.
XXIV “kinsman” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
XXV “Elimelech” = Elimelek. 6x in OT– all in Ruth. From el (God, a god) + melek (king, royal). This is Elimelech, a name meaning “God is king” or “God of the king.”

So I thought I would tell youXXVI of it and say: BuyXXVII it in the presenceXXVIII of those sitting here and in the presence of the elders of my people.XXIX

Notes on verse 4a

XXVI “tell you” = galah + ozen. Literally, “uncover your ears.” Galah is to remove, bring, carry, lead, appear, uncover, advertise. It can mean to strip someone or something bare in a negative sense. Captives were typically stripped before they were sent into exile. Used figuratively, in a positive sense, this word means reveal, disclose, discover. Ozen is ear, hearing, audience, show. Properly, it is broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape.
XXVII “buy” = qanah. This is to acquire, create, purchase, own. Its root may mean to smith or to produce.
XXVIII “presence” = neged. From nagad (to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain). This is in front of, opposite to. It can refer to a counterpart or partner, one corresponding to or in the sight of.
XXIX “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

If you will redeemXXX it, redeem it; but if you will not,XXXI tellXXXII me, so that I may know;XXXIII for there is no one priorXXXIV to you to redeem it, and I come afterXXXV you.”

So he said, “I will redeem it.” 

Notes on verse 4b

XXX “redeem” = gaal. Same as “next-of-kin” in v1. See note VI above.
XXXI {untranslated} = gaal. Same as “next-of-kin” in v1. See note VI above.
XXXII “tell” = nagad. Related to “presence” in v4. See note XXVIII.
XXXIII “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XXXIV “prior” = zulah. 16x in OT. Perhaps from zul (to shake out, lavish, despise). This is removal, except, besides.
XXXV “after” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.

Then Boaz said, “The dayXXXVI you acquireXXXVII the fieldXXXVIII from the handXXXIX of Naomi,

Notes on verse 5a

XXXVI “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XXXVII “acquire” = qanah. Same as “buy” in v4. See note XXVII above.
XXXVIII “field” = sadeh. Same as “country” in v3. See note XIX above.
XXXIX “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.

you are also acquiring RuthXL the Moabite,XLI the widowXLII of the deadXLIII man,

Notes on verse 5b

XL “Ruth” = Ruth. 12x in OT. From raah (to associate with someone, cultivate) OR from reuth (a female neighbor, a mate, friend, another); {from ra’ah (to tend a flock, pasture, or graze; to rule or to associate with someone; figuratively, ruler or teacher)} OR from raah (to see, show, stare, think, view; to see in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ruth, a name meaning “friendship” or “friend” or “associate” or “vision” or “view” or “beauty.” See
XLI “Moabite” = Moabi. Related to “Moab” in v3. 16x in OT. From Moab (see note XX above). This is Moabite or Moab. See
XLII “widow” = ishshah. Related to “men” in v2. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (see note XIV above). This is woman, wife, or female.
XLIII “dead” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

to maintainXLIV the dead man’s nameXLV on his inheritance.”XLVI 

Notes on verse 5c

XLIV “maintain” = qanah + qum. Qanah is the same as “buy” in v4. See note XXVII above. Qum is to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
XLV “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
XLVI “inheritance” = nachalah. Related to nachal (to inherit, occupy, distribute, take as heritage). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.

At this, the next-of-kin said, “I cannotXLVII redeem it for myself withoutXLVIII damagingXLIX my own inheritance. TakeL my right of redemptionLI yourself, for I cannot redeem it.”

Notes on verse 6

XLVII “cannot” = lo + yakol. Yakol is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
XLVIII “without” = pen. Perhaps from panah (to turn, face, appear). This is lest, if, or.
XLIX “damaging” = shachath. This is to go to ruin, perish, decay, batter, cast off, lose, one who destroys. This can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
L “take” = gaal. Same as “next-of-kin” in v1. See note VI above.
LI “right of redemption” = geullah. Related to “next-of-kin” in v1. 14x in OT. From gaal (see note VI above). This may simply mean kin, whether the right of one related or the person to whom one is related.

Now this was the custom in former timesLII in IsraelLIII concerning redeeming and exchangingLIV to confirmLV a transaction:LVI

Notes on verse 7a

LII “in former times” = paneh. Related to “without” in v6. From panah (see note XLVIII above). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LIII “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
LIV “exchanging” = temurah. 6x in OT – 2x in Leviticus, 1x in Ruth, 3x in Job. From mur (to change, substitute, stand by, alter, remove). This is a substitute, exchange, trading, or recompense.
LV “confirm” = qum. Same as “maintain” in v5. See note XLIV above.
LVI “transaction” = kol + dabar. Kol is from kalal (to complete). This is all or every. Dabar is related to “spoken” in v1. From dabar (see note VII above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.

the oneLVII took offLVIII a sandalLIX and gaveLX it to the other;LXI this was the manner of attestingLXII in Israel. 

Notes on verse 7b

LVII “one” = ish. Related to “men” in v2 & “widow” in v5. See note XLII above.
LVIII “took off” = shalaph. This is to draw out, pluck off, grow up.
LIX “sandal” = naal. From naal (properly to secure with a bar or cord; to lock, bolt, enclose; to secure with a cord i.e. to put on a sandal). This is the tongue of a sandal and, by extension, a sandal or shoe itself. Figuratively, this can refer to occupancy, unwillingness to marry, or something without value.
LX “gave” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LXI “other” = rea. Related to “Ruth” in v5. . From raah (see note XL above). This is the same as neighbor in Leviticus 19:18 “love your neighbor as yourself.” This is friend, companion, fellow, neighbor. It is someone with whom you associate, whether more or less close.
LXII “manner of attesting” = teudah. 3x in OT. From ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is testimony, instruction, or usage.

So when the next-of-kin said to Boaz, “Acquire it for yourself,” he took off his sandal. 

Then Boaz said to the elders and allLXIII the people, “You are witnessesLXIV todayLXV that I have acquired from the hand of Naomi all that belonged to Elimelech and all that belonged to ChilionLXVI and Mahlon.LXVII 

Notes on verses 8-9

LXIII “all” = kol. Related to “transaction” in v7. See note LVI above.
LXIV “witnesses” = ed. Related to “manner of attesting” in v8. From ud (see note LXII above). This is a witness, testimony, or one who records testimony. It can also refer to a prince.
LXV “today” = yom. Same as “day” in v5. See note XXXVI above.
LXVI “Chilion” = Kilyon. 3x in OT– all in Ruth. From killayon (failing, destruction); from kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is Chilion or Kilyon, a name meaning “coming to an end” or “man of finality” or “wasting away” or “pining” or “consuming.” See
LXVII “Mahlon” = Machlon. 4x in OT– all in Ruth. Perhaps from chalah (properly, this is to be worn; hence, being weak, sick, or afflicted; it can also mean to grieve or, positively, to flatter or entreat). This is Mahlon or Machlon, a name meaning “sick” or “sickly” or “man of sickness” or “man of entreaty.” See

10 I have also acquired Ruth the Moabite, the wifeLXVIII of Mahlon, to be my wife, to maintain the dead man’s name on his inheritance, in order that the name of the dead may not be cut offLXIX from his kindredLXX and from the gate of his native place;LXXI today you are witnesses.” 

Notes on verse 10

LXVIII “wife” = ishshah. Same a “widow” in v5. See note XLII above.
LXIX “cut off” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
LXX “kindred” = ach. Same as “kinsman” in v3. See note XXIV above.
LXXI “place” = maqom. Related to “maintain” in v5. From qum (see note XLIV above). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.

11 Then all the people who were at the gate, along with the elders, said, “We are witnesses. May the LordLXXII makeLXXIII the womanLXXIV who is comingLXXV into your houseLXXVI

Notes on verse 11a

LXXII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
LXXIII “make” = natan. Same as “gave” in v7. See note LX above.
LXXIV “woman” = ishshah. Same as “widow” in v5. See note XLII above.
LXXV “coming” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
LXXVI “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

like RachelLXXVII and Leah,LXXVIII who togetherLXXIX builtLXXX up the house of Israel.

Notes on verse 11b

LXXVII “Rachel” = Rachel. From the same as rachel (a ewe, sheep). Its root may refer to travelling. This is Rachel, meaning “ewe.”
LXXVIII “Leah” = Leah. From laah (to be weary or exhausted, parched, faint, or tired; to be impatient or have a hard time; figuratively, being grieved or disgusted). This is Leah, meaning “weary” or “wild cow.” See
LXXIX “together” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
LXXX “built” = banah. Related to “house” in v11. See note LXXVI above.

May you produce childrenLXXXI in EphrathahLXXXII and bestowLXXXIII a name in Bethlehem;LXXXIV 

Notes on verse 11c

LXXXI “produce children” = chayil. From chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is strength, wealth, ability, activity. It can refer to soldier or a company of soldiers as well as goods. It is a force of people, means, or goods. It can speak of valor, virtue, or strength.
LXXXII “Ephrathah” = Ephrath. 10x in OT. From the same as apher (covering, ashes, bandage); from the same as epher (ashes or dust – properly something strewn) OR from parah (to bear fruit, grow, be fruitful, increase; bearing fruit in a literal or figurative sense) OR from parar (to divide, split) OR from apar (to be exhausted). This is Ephrath or Ephrathah. It is a female name and the name of several places, including Bethlehem. It may mean “fruitfulness,” “exhausted,” “worthless,” or “fruitful.” See
LXXXIII “bestow” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
LXXXIV “Bethlehem” = Beth lechem. Related to “house” and “built” in v11. From bayit (see note LXXVI above) + lechem (bread, food, loaf; food for people or for animals); {from lacham (to eat, feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction)}. This is Bethlehem, meaning “house of bread.”

12 and, through the childrenLXXXV that the Lord will give you by this young woman,LXXXVI may your house beLXXXVII like the house of Perez,LXXXVIII whom TamarLXXXIX boreXC to Judah.”XCI

Notes on verse 12

LXXXV “children” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
LXXXVI “young woman” = naarah. From naar (child or a servant; a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence); perhaps from naar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a girl or young lady ranging anywhere in age from infancy to adolescence.
LXXXVII “be” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v11. See note LXXII above.
LXXXVIII “Perez” = Perets. 15x in OT. From parats (to make a breach, burst out, compel, disperse; to break out literally or figuratively). This is Perez, meaning “breach.”
LXXXIX “Tamar” = Tamar. From the same as tomer (palm tree, the trunk of that tree, a post); from the same as tamar (palm tree). This is Tamar, a name and a place. It means “palm tree” or “free market.” See
XC “bore” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.
XCI “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”

13 So Boaz took Ruth, and she becameXCII his wife. When they came together,XCIII the Lord made her conceive,XCIV and she bore a son.XCV 

14 Then the women said to Naomi, “Blessed beXCVI the Lord, who has not leftXCVII you this day without next-of-kin, and may his name be renownedXCVIII in Israel! 

Notes on verses 13-14

XCII “became” = hayah. Same as “be” in v12. See note LXXXVII above.
XCIII “came together” = bo + el. Literally, “he went in to her.” Bo is the same as “coming” in v11. See note LXXV above.
XCIV “conceive” = heron. 3x in OT. From harah (to conceive or be pregnant – can be literal or figurative). This is conception, being pregnant, or giving birth.
XCV “son” = ben. Related to “house” and “built” and “Bethlehem” in v11. From banah (see note LXXVI above). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
XCVI “blessed be” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
XCVII “left” = shabath. This is to rest, stop, repose, cease working. By implication, it is to celebrate.
XCVIII “be renowned” = qara. Same as “bestow” in v11. See note LXXXIII above.

15 He shall be to you a restorerXCIX of lifeC and a nourisherCI of your old age,CII

Notes on verse 15a

XCIX “restorer” = shub. Same as “come back” in v3. See note XVIII above.
C “life” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
CI “nourisher” = kul. This is to hold in. So, it can be to contain, measure, guide, or feed. It can also mean to be able to or sustain.
CII “old age” = sebah. 19x in OT. From sib (to have gray hair, become old). This is being gray or old.

for your daughter-in-lawCIII who lovesCIV you, who is moreCV to you than sevenCVI sons, has borne him.” 

Notes on verse 15b

CIII “daughter-in-law” = kallah. Related to “transaction” in v7. Perhaps related to kalal (see note LVI above). This is bride or daughter-in-law and the term is used before and after marriage.
CIV “loves” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
CV “more” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
CVI “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.

16 Then Naomi took the childCVII and laidCVIII him in her bosomCIX and became his nurse.CX 

Notes on verse 16

CVII “child” = yeled. Related to “bore” in v12. From yalad (see note XC above). This is something born – so, offspring, youth, fruit. It is the same word used in Isaiah 9:6 “for a child will be born to us.”
CVIII “laid” = shith. This is to place, set, bring, appoint, consider, bring, array or look.
CIX “bosom” = cheq. Root may mean to enclose. This is bosom in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be arms, lap, or midst. It can also be care or cherish.
CX “became…nurse” = hayah + aman. Hayah is the same as “be” in v12. See note LXXXVII above. Aman is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. It can also mean to nurse. This is where the word “amen” comes from.

17 The women of the neighborhoodCXI gaveCXII him a name, saying, “A son has been born to Naomi.” They namedCXIII him Obed;CXIV

Notes on verse 17a

CXI “women of the neighborhood” = shaken. From shakan (to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently; to abide or continue). This is resident or neighbor. It is related to mishkan, the Hebrew word for “tabernacle.”
CXII “gave” = qara. Same as “bestow” in v11. See note LXXXIII above.
CXIII “named” = qara + shem. Literally, “called his name.” Qara is the same as “bestow” in v11. See note LXXXIII above. Shem is the same as “name” in v5. See note XLV above.
CXIV “Obed” = Obed. 10x in OT. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is Obed, a name meaning “worshiper” or “serving” or “servant” or “slave.” See

he became the fatherCXV of Jesse,CXVI the father of David.CXVII

Notes on verse 17b

CXV “father” = ab. Related to “Moab” in v3 & “Moabite” in v5. See note XX above.
CXVI “Jesse” = Yishay. Perhaps from ish (man); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail)} OR from the same as yesh (being, existence, substance). This is Jesse, a name which means “my husband” or “the Lord exists.” See
CXVII “David” = David. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”

18 Now these are the descendantsCXVIII ofCXIX Perez: Perez became the father ofCXX Hezron,CXXI 

Notes on verse 18

CXVIII “descendants” = toledoth. Related to “bore” in v12 & “child” in v16. From yalad (see note XC above). This is generations descent, family, or history.
CXIX “of” = yalad. Same as “bore” in v12. See note XC above.
CXX “became the father of” = yalad. Same as “bore” in v12. See note XC above.
CXXI “Hezron” = Chetsron. 18x in OT. From the same as chatser (enclosure or court – a yard that is fenced in. It could also be a village or hamlet that is walled in). This is Hezron or Chetsron, a personal name and a place name. It means ”courtyard,” “enclosure,” “surrounded by a wall,” ‘cluster,” or “village.” See

19 Hezron of Ram,CXXII Ram of Amminadab,CXXIII 20 Amminadab of Nahshon,CXXIV Nahshon of Salmon,CXXV 21 SalmonCXXVI of Boaz, Boaz of Obed, 22 Obed of Jesse, and Jesse of David.

Notes on verses 19-22

CXXII “Ram” = Ram. 7x in OT. From rum (to be high, rise, exalted, become proud, display, offer, present, set apart, extol; to rise in a literal or figurative sense).  This is Ram, a name that means “high” or “exalted.” See
CXXIII “Amminadab” = Amminadab. Related to “people” in v4. From am (see note XXIX above) + nadib (voluntary and so it implies generous, noble, magnanimous, or a generous person); {from nadab (to offer willingly, volunteer, freely give, be willing)}. This is Amminadab. It means “my kinsman is noble” or “people of liberality.” See
CXXIV “Nahshon” = Nachshon. 10x in OT. From the same as nachash (serpent, snake); from nachash (to divine, interpret omens, learn from experience, observe; to hiss). This is Nahshon, a name meaning “enchanter” or “serpent” or “bronze” or “oracle” or “diviner.” See
CXXV “Salmon” = Salmah. 1x in OT. Perhaps from the same as salmah (the same word as simlah with the letters transposed; clothing, a cloak, or mantle); from simlah (mantle, clothes, wrapper); perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is Salmon or Salmah. It means “clothing” or “robe man” or “coat rack.” See
CXXVI “Salmon” = Salmon. 1x in OT. Related to “Salmon” in v20. Perhaps from salmah (see note CXXV above). This is Salmon. It means “clothing” or “robe man” or “coat rack.” See

Image credit: “Birth of Mary” by Guido Reni from the entrance wall fresco at the Palazzo Quirinale, Cappella dell’Annunciata, 1609-1611.

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